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Key references

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References for the key publications about cardiovascular health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are listed here.

2013

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013)

Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health survey: first results, Australia, 2012-13.

Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics

This summary of the first findings from the 2012-13 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health survey provides information on long-term health conditions, health risk factors, selected social and emotional wellbeing indicators, health measurements, and health related actions for Indigenous Australian peoples. Information is included on Indigenous peoples living in remote and non-remote areas.

Abstract adapted from Australian Bureau of Statistics

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013)

Rheumatic heart disease and acute rheumatic fever in Australia: 1996-2011.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report examines and presents a range of data on acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Australia. The data show that:

  • ARF now occurs almost exclusively in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • The prevalence of RHD is much higher among Indigenous people than other Australians.
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are considerably more likely to be hospitalised with ARF or RHD, and to die from RHD.

Based on available data, rates of ARF among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are among the highest in the world. Data contained in the report on the incidence of ARF and prevalence of RHD come from the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australian Rheumatic Heart Disease registers. Among the key findings it is noted that:

  • RHD is a serious disease which has a substantial impact on individuals.
  • RHD can be prevented by adequate treatment of ARF.
  • Regular, long-term antibiotic treatment is recommended for people with ARF or RHD.
  • Heart surgery may be required to repair heart valve damage resulting from RHD.

Abstract adapted from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

2012

Gray C, Brown A, Thomson N (2012)

Review of cardiovascular health among Indigenous Australians.

Perth: Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

2011

Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council (2011)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health performance framework: 2010 report.

Canberra: Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health, Department of Health and Ageing

This is the third report developed under the auspice of the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council to measure progress against the National strategic framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health as well as the more recent measures introduced under Closing the gap national partnerships.

The performance framework reports on the three tiers of health:

  • health status and outcomes: this includes measures of prevalence of disease or injury, human function, life expectancy and wellbeing
  • measures of the health determinants: this includes socioeconomic status, environmental factors and health behaviours
  • health system performance: this includes effectiveness, responsiveness, accessibility and sustainability.
Major findings of the report include:
  • a significant decline in Indigenous deaths due to avoidable causes
  • narrowing of the mortality gap
  • reduction in infant mortality
  • chronic diseases are a continuing concern, contributing to two thirds of the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians
  • there were slight reductions in literacy and numeracy gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students
  • risky behaviours, such as smoking and lack of physical activity, were continuing concerns among Indigenous people
  • access to, and utilisation of medical services is less than expected given higher levels of illness
  • access to medical services is more difficult in remote than non-remote areas.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011)

Cardiovascular disease: Australian facts 2011.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report provides information on the latest available data in Australia on cardiovascular health for policy makers, health professionals and the community. The report covers areas including risk factors for cardiovascular disease, major cardiovascular diseases and health services.

The report includes separate information on cardiovascular diseases which have the greatest impact on the Australian population. The report includes data on trends, prevalence, hospitalisation and mortality for each disease with additional analysis by Indigenous status, remoteness area and socio-economic group.

The report also examines the co-morbidity of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, using hospitalisation data to highlight the fact that cardiovascular disease is often diagnosed in conjunction with other diseases and complex relationships exist, not only between cardiovascular disease and conditions such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease, but also between each cardiovascular condition.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011)

The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: an overview 2011.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This overview is a summary of Indigenous health and welfare at the national level. Topics covered include:

  • demographic characteristics
  • determinants of health and welfare: socioeconomic factors, housing, community capacity, behavioural factors, and social and emotional wellbeing
  • health and functioning: disability, community functioning, and health conditions
  • mortality and life expectancy of mothers and babies, children, young people and older people
  • health care and support services, including health and welfare expenditure.

The report compares Indigenous statistics to the non-Indigenous statistics on the same health and welfare issues and provides time series data where available. It relates the picture of Indigenous health and welfare to the goals set by the Council of Australian Governments and the raft of measures under Closing the gap agreement aimed at reducing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. For the first time, the report looks at the impact of chronic diseases on the life expectancy gap, currently estimated to be 12 years for men and 10 years for women. It shows that about 80% of the mortality gap can be attributed to chronic diseases, most significantly heart diseases (22%), diabetes (12%) and liver diseases (11%).

The report is accompanied by nine online papers on specific topics, available from the Indigenous observatory: Indigenous life expectancy and mortality, child safety, eye health, disability, access to health services, chronic disease and older people.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

National Heart Foundation, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (2011)

Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of chronic heart failure in Australia. Updated July 2011.

Deakin, ACT: National Heart Foundation

This report outlines the updated guidelines of the National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of chronic heart failure in Australia, 2006.

The guidelines have been developed from all available published evidence until 30 November 2010 for the most effective diagnosis, management and prevention of coronary heart failure. The aims of the guidelines are to obtain better health outcomes by improving the management of coronary heart failure and to reduce unwarranted variation from best practice treatment of coronary heart failure throughout Australia.

The target audiences includes general practitioners, general physicians, cardiologists, registrars and hospital resident medical officers, nurses and other allied health professionals, and educators.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

2008

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2008)

Health care expenditure on cardiovascular diseases 2004–05.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report provides information on the the total allocated health system expenditure associated with cardiovascular disease in Australia. The report covers expenditure during the period 2004-05. Estimates of expenditure are presented by age, sex, and type of cardiovascular disease.

Expenditure estimates are available for the following areas of healthcare:

  • hospital-admitted patients
  • out-of-hospital medical services
  • prescription
  • pharmaceuticals
  • and research.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Penm E (2008)

Cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2004-05.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report presents national information for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated risk factors, as well as on deaths due to CVD. Results are based mostly on analysis of the Australian Bureau of Statistics' most recent National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey and National Health Survey conducted in 2004-05.
Topics covered include:

  • background demographic and overall health status
  • cardiovascular disease
  • risk factors and conditions associated with cardiovascular disease

The findings of the report demonstrate cardiovascular disease is a major health problem among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In 2004-05, one in eight Indigenous Australians had cardiovascular disease as a long-term condition with the disease found to be more common in woman and older people. Between 2002 and 2005, cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of death, accounting for 27% of all Indigenous deaths. Death rates in Indigenous Australians were 3 times as high as in non-Indigenous Australians with nearly all cardiovascular risk factors found to be more common among Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

2006

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006)

Cardiovascular disease in Australia: a snapshot, 2004-05.

Retrieved 11 April 2011 from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4821.0.55.001?OpenDocument

This reports provides an overview of cardiovascular disease in Australia. It covers the prevalence, risk factors, hospitalisations and trends in morbidity and uses data drawn from the National Health Survey (2001 and 2004-05) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (2004-05). Information is also provided on specific cardiovascular conditions and a subset of cardiovascular conditions.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006)

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Australia, 2004-05.

Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics

This summary of results from the 2004-05 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey provides information about health status, health actions, and lifestyle factors, of Indigenous peoples. There are comparisons with the 1995 and 2001 National Health Surveys and the 2002 National Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander Social Survey.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Mathur S, Moon L, Leigh S (2006)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with coronary heart disease: further perspectives on health status and treatment.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This study found that Indigenous people are considerably more likely to suffer a heart attack than other Australians; and are more likely to die as a consequence (whether admitted to hospital or not). If admitted to hospital, Indigenous people are less likely to receive key medical investigations or procedures such as angioplasty or coronary bypass surgery. The study considers the various factors that contribute to higher Indigenous death rates from coronary heart disease, such as: vulnerability to heart attack; complexity of cases; and treatment inadequacies. The report highlights the need to reduce the health inequalities that Indigenous people experience in relation to coronary heart disease.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

National Heart Foundation of Australia, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (2006)

Diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Australia: an evidence based review.

Sydney: National Heart Foundation of Australia and Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand

This evidence based review has been jointly developed by the National Heart Foundation and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. The report shows that the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is very high among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, particularly children. In the past two years there has been an increase of almost 13% in the diagnosis of ARF among Indigenous children. The report focuses on diagnosis and management issues and has been developed with the aim of ensuring Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples receive the same standard of care as that available to other Australians.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

2005

National Health and Medical Research Council (2005)

Strengthening cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a guide for health professionals.

Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council

This guide is based on available evidence and wide-ranging processes of consultation. Information was collected from health professionals and consumers in regard to the reasons why Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people do not attend cardiac rehabilitation programs and how services could be made more accessible.

The guide promotes flexible, multidisciplinary approaches that make use of the skills available in each setting and encourages partnerships and capacity building at a local level. It also contains practical guidance and lists of additional resources and advice for those practitioners involved in cardiac rehabilitation. Generic issues around cultural competence and discrimination are considered in relation to cardiac rehabilitation and the secondary prevention of heart disease. The guide is most suited to health practitioners as it contains concise information relating to the cultural complexities associated with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples recovering from cardiac problems.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

2004

Aboriginal Stroke Project Steering Committee, National Stroke Foundation (2004)

National stroke unit program: Aboriginal stroke project.

Canberra: National Stroke Foundation

This report provides the results of a series of interviews undertaken in Western Australia with Aboriginal stroke survivors and health service providers. The interviews explored the experiences of stroke amongst Aboriginal people and identified their needs in relation to treatment and rehabilitation. The results were interpreted in the context of the Stroke Services Model and help to inform the development of this model in relation to the needs of Aboriginal stroke patients.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2004)

Heart, stroke and vascular diseases: Australian facts 2004.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report provides information on data and trends in heart, stroke and vascular diseases in Australia. It is intended for audiences such as the community, health professionals and policy makers, and provides a concise summary of the area.

The report includes information on the main cardiovascular diseases, selected risk factors, associated conditions, and treatment and care. There is also data available on a range of treatment and rehabilitation areas including general practice care, drug treatment, procedures in hospital, and rehabilitation and secondary prevention.

There is a dedicated focus section in this report on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

2003

Thomson N, Brooks J (2003)

Cardiovascular disease.

In: Thomson N, ed. The health of Indigenous Australians. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press: 186-206

This book chapter addresses the cardiovascular health needs of Indigenous people in Australia. It describes various circulatory conditions including: coronary heart disease; cerebrovascular disease; hypertensive disease, acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease; and congenital heart disease. It also covers areas such as: risk factors; prevention and management; incidence and prevalence; hospitalisation and mortality.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

 
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