Grief describes how a person feels after the loss of someone or something that is very important to them. The grief experienced from a loss affects the whole person, including their mind, spirit, and body, as well as the relationships they have with other people. Many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people refer to grief as 'sorry business'. It is important to understand grief within the social (e.g., family relationships) and cultural context in which it takes place. Grief can occur with the loss of:
Grief can also occur because of the long-term effects of the Stolen generations, or a cultural separation from land, language, or knowledge. In some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, the grief is ongoing because of the 'unfinished business' of the Stolen generations and other impacts on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. If this grief stays unresolved, it may be passed on through the generations of a family; this is called intergenerational grief.
Grief is different for every person and a time limit cannot be put on it. Grief is an unfortunate part of life, but too much grief is not good for a person. How a person grieves will depend on:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are very supportive of each other and, when a loss occurs in a community, the grief experienced is often felt by many people and can have a crushing impact on the health and the stability of the communities involved.
When grieving, people may experience the following:
Sometimes these feelings can be confusing because people might see their family and friends reacting in different ways. People grieve in different ways and no way is better or worse than another. Grief is normal and very important because it helps people to let go of these feelings and move on with their lives.
During times of loss and grief people may find it hard to do the everyday things that are an important part of life, for example:
There are also physical signs and behaviours that may happen during times of loss and grief including:
It is important to understand that people must grieve. Hiding it by drinking too much or taking drugs will only make the memories go away for a short time. It is okay when Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people talk about being visited by the spirit of a loved one who has died because it is part of their culture - the deceased person may be letting them know that they are okay. If, however, someone is scared by these visits, they should seek advice from an Aboriginal Health Worker, traditional healer, Elder, or family member.
Loss, and the grief that comes with it, does not always lead to mental illness. However, if a person does not deal with their grief very well, it can affect their mental health. It is important to be aware of the cultural aspects of loss and grief. For example, visits from a deceased person's spirit should not be misunderstood as a sign of mental illness. Other cultural aspects of loss and grief are the traditional ceremonies that are performed after the loss of a loved one; these take place so that the spirit is shown respect and can find a place of peace. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who take part in traditional ceremonies and 'sorry business' say it helps them to deal with their feelings of grief and loss.
There are different traditions and laws for each Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community and therefore different ways of grieving. It has been suggested that because of this, a community-based approach to healing is the most effective strategy for managing grief and loss.
There are a number of things that people can do to help themselves manage their grief, including:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have a long history of survival and there are many great stories involving individuals, families, and communities which demonstrate their resilience (ability to recover from difficult situations) and strength in overcoming loss and grief.
Aboriginal Drug and Alcohol Council (ADAC) (2003) Grief and trauma project. Adelaide: Aboriginal Drug and Alcohol Council (SA)
Freeman D, Freeman B (2009) Aboriginal social and emotional wellbeing fact sheet series. Campbelltown, NSW: Campbelltown Community Mental Health Service (SSWAHS)
Hampshire WJ (2011) Dhangude Dunghutti Burrai welcomed to Dunghutti Land: towards a shared understanding of grief and loss. Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW
Lifeline Australia (2009) Coping with sorrow, loss and grief. Deakin, ACT: Lifeline Australia
Mental Health First Aid Training and Research Program (2008) Trauma and loss: guidelines for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person. Melbourne: Mental Health First Aid
Westerman TG (2001) Grieving Aboriginal way. Perth, WA: Indigenous Psychological Services