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Monitoring carriage of streptococcus pneumoniae among Aboriginal children and adults in Western Australia (formerly Streptococcus pneumoniae)
This study aims to monitor the impact of different version of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on pneumococcal carriage by collecting pernasal swabs opportunistically from Aboriginal adults and children in urban, rural and remote areas of Western Australia.
The bacteria pneumococci, of which there are 90 known strains, can cause middle ear infections, meningitis, pneumonia and septicaemia (blood poisoning), and disproportionately affect Aboriginal children.
Other study aims include:
- describing the prevalence of upper respiratory tract (URT) carriage of other pathogens identified on primary culture
- comparing the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes in the URT with those causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Aboriginal adults and children annually
- monitoring antibiotic resistance pattern of pneumococci
- storing pernasal swabs for detection of viruses to describe the prevalence of respiratory viruses
- investigating viral-bacterial interactions in the URT.
There have been a number of findings from the study so far. Pneumococcal carriage rates remain high in children, being highest in the 6-23 month age group. Approximately 12% of young adults and 10% of people over 65 years of age carried pneumococci. Currently, the most common pneumococcal serotypes in children below five years of age are 19F, 6C and 16F, while 19F, 6A/6C and 10A are most common in older children and adults. There has been some reduction in carriage of serotypes included in Prevenar-13™ since its introduction 18 months ago but the proportion of serotypes identified in the URT which are not covered by Prevenar-13™ remains high (~70%). Surveillance is ongoing.
Abstract adapted from Telethon Kids Institute
Telethon Kids Institute
100 Roberts Road
Subiaco WA 6008
PO Box 855
West Perth WA 6872
Ph: (08) 9489 7777
Collins DA, Hoskins A, Bowman J, Jones J, Stemberger NA, Richmond PC, Leach AJ, Lehmann D (2013)
High nasopharyngeal carriage of non-vaccine serotypes in Western Australian Aboriginal people following 10 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.
PLOS ONE; 8: e82280
Retrieved 3 December 2013 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082280
Leach AJ, Wigger C, Hare K, Hampton V, Beissbarth J, Andrews R, Chatfield M, Smith-Vaughan H, Morris PS (2015)
Reduced middle ear infection with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, but not Streptococcus pneumoniae, after transition to 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine.
BMC Pediatrics; 15: 162
Retrieved 19 October 2015 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-015-0483-8
Lim FJ, Lehmann D, McLoughlin A, Harrison C, Willis J, Giele C, Keil AD, Moore HC (2014)
Risk factors and comorbidities for invasive pneumococcal disease in Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.
pneumonia; 4(2014): 24-34
Lehmann D, Willis J, Moore HC, Giele C, Murphy D, Keil AD, Harrison C, Bayley K, Watson M, Richmond P (2010)
The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians from 1997 through 2007 and emergence of nonvaccine serotypes.
Clinical Infectious Diseases; 50(11): 1477-1486