Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Google+ Share by Email

Skip to content

Key resources

  • Bibliography
  • Health promotion
    Health promotion
  • Health practice
    Health practice
  • Yarning places
    Yarning places
  • Programs
  • Organisations
  • Conferences
  • Courses
  • Funding
  • Jobs
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin

Hepatitis A and B

Please select category from the dropdown list below.


Burns J, Burrow S, Drew N, Elwell M, Gray C, Harford-Mills M, Hoareau J, Lynch R, MacRae A, O’Hara T, Potter C, Ride K, Trzesinski A (2015)

Overview of Australian Indigenous health status, 2014.

Perth, WA: Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

This report provides recent information on:

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations
  • the context of Indigenous health
  • various measures of population health status
  • selected health conditions
  • health risk and protective factors.

This Overview draws on statistics and other published and unpublished materials to provide up-to-date, detailed information about the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in 2014. It highlights a number of improvements in certain aspects of Indigenous health, but underlines that ongoing work is needed to 'close the gap' in health status between Indigenous and other Australians.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Burns J, Burrow S, Drew N, Elwell M, Gray C, Harford-Mills M, Hoareau J, Lynch R, MacRae A, O’Hara T, Potter C, Ride K, Trzesinski A (2015)

Summary of Australian Indigenous health status, 2014.

Perth: Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

Butler T, Callander D, Simpson M (2015)

National prison entrants' bloodborne virus and risk behaviour survey report 2004, 2007, 2010, and 2013: prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and risk behaviours among Australian prison entrants: national report.

Sydney: Kirby Institute

Davies J, Bukulatjpi S, Sharma S, Caldwell L, Johnston V, Davis JS (2015)

Development of a culturally appropriate bilingual electronic app about hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians: towards shared understandings.

JMIR Research Protocols; 4(2): e70

Retrieved 10 June 2015 from

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System Annual Report Writing Group (2015)

Australia’s notifiable disease status, 2012: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

Canberra: National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System


Davies J, Bukulatjpi S, Sharma S, Davis J, Johnston V (2014)

"Only your blood can tell the story" - a qualitative research study using semi- structured interviews to explore the hepatitis B related knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous Australians and their health care providers in northern Australia.

BMC Public Health; 14: 1233

Retrieved 28 November 2014 from

Foy A, Tierney A (2014)

Internal medicine in the bush: a clinical audit of a rural and remote outreach programme.

Internal Medicine Journal; 44(4): 369–374

Graham S (2014)

Sexually transmitted infections/bloodborne viruses in Aboriginal people; understanding the burden of disease and evaluating interventions.

Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of New South Wales: Sydney

Griffiths E, Reeve C, Marley JV (2014)

Hepatitis B notifications in a vaccinated cohort of Aboriginal people in the Kimberley region.

Medical Journal of Australia; 201(6): 343-346

Grish RG, Gutierrez JA, Navarro-Cazarez N, Tran B, Locarnini S, Hammond R, Bowden S (2014)

A simple and inexpensive point-of-care test for hepatitis B surface antigen detection: serological and molecular evaluation.

Journal of Viral Hepatitis; 21(12): 905–908

Harrod ME, Couzos S, Delaney-Thiele D, Dore GJ, Hammond B, Saunders M, Belfrage M, Williams S, Kaldor JM, Ward J (2014)

Markers of hepatitis B infection and immunity in patients attending Aboriginal community controlled health services.

Medical Journal of Australia; 201(6): 339-342

Hull BP, Dey A, Menzies RI, Brotherton JM, McIntyre PB (2014)

Immunisation coverage, 2012.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 38(3): E208-E231

Littlejohn M, Davies J, Yuen L, Edwards R, Sozzi T, Jackson K, Cowie B, Tong S, Davis J, Locarnini S (2014)

Molecular virology of hepatitis B virus, sub-genotype C4 in northern Australian Indigenous populations.

Journal of Medical Virology; 86(4): 695–706

Mitchell K, Aboagye-Sarfo P, Mak D, Giele C, Minas B (2014)

The epidemiology of notifiable sexually transmitted infections and blood-borne viruses in Western Australia 2012.

Perth: Department of Health, Western Australia

NSW Ministry of Health (2014)

NSW hepatitis B strategy 2014-2020.

North Sydney: NSW Ministry of Health

Olsen A, Wallace J, Maher L (2014)

Responding to Australia's national hepatitis B strategy 2010–13: gaps in knowledge and practice in relation to Indigenous Australians.

Australian Journal of Primary Health; 20(2): 134-142

Parker C, Tong SYC, Dempsey K, Condon J, Sharma SK, Chen JWC, Sievert W, Davis JS (2014)

Hepatocellular carcinoma in Australia's Northern Territory: high incidence and poor outcome.

Medical Journal of Australia; 201(8): 470-474

Reekie JM, Levy MH, Richards AH, Wake CJ, Siddall DA, Beasley HM, Kumar S, Butler TG (2014)

Trends in HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C prevalence among Australian prisoners - 2004, 2007, 2010.

Medical Journal of Australia; 200(5): 277-280

The Kirby Institute (2014)

Bloodborne viral and sexually transmitted infections in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: surveillance and evaluation report 2014.

Sydney: University of New South Wales

This surveillance report provides information on the occurrence of blood borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The purpose of the report is to encourage and support discussion on ways forward in minimising the transmission risks, as well as the personal and social consequences of these infections within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The report is produced in a format that is intended to be accessible to a wide range of health service providers and consumers and includes information on:

  • medical and epidemiological terms
  • summary of main findings
  • main findings for specific BBVs and STIs
  • methodological notes.

Abstract adapted from The Kirby Institute

Wallace J, Pitts M, Ward J, McNally S (2014)

Management of chronic hepatitis B in the Torres Strait Islands: an identified need for a comprehensive public health approach to chronic hepatitis B in remote Australian Indigenous communities.

Australian Journal of Primary Health; 20(3): 273-277


Australasian Society for HIV Medicine, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (2013)

Hepatitis B mapping project: estimates of chronic hepatitis B prevalence and cultural and linguistic diversity by Medicare Local : national report 2011.

Sydney: Australasian Society for HIV Medicine

Davies J, Littlejohn M, Locarnini SA, Whiting S, Hajkowicz K, Cowie BC, Bowden DS, Tong SY, Davis JS (2013)

The molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis B in the Indigenous people of northern Australia.

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; 28(7): 1234–1241

Davies J, Tong SYC, Davis JS (2013)

Hepatitis D is rare or non‐existent in hepatitis B virus‐infected Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 37(2): 188 - 189

Graham S, Guy RJ, Cowie B, Wand HC, Donovan B, Akre SP, Ward JS (2013)

Chronic hepatitis B prevalence among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians since universal vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Infectious Diseases; 13: 403

Retrieved 31 August 2013 from

Harding D, Sharma S, McCormick R, John L, Mosel L, Chen J, Wigg A, Tse E (2013)

The use of tele-conferencing and a visiting hepatology clinic to improve management of hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced liver disease in the top end of the Northern Territory.

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; 28(S2): 57

MacLachlan J, Cowie B (2013)

Chronic hepatitis B what’s new?.

Australian Family Physician; 42(7): 448 - 451

MacLachlan JH, Allard N, Towell V, Cowie BC (2013)

The burden of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Australia, 2011.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 37(5): 416–422

Preston-Thomas A, Fagan P, Nakata Y, Anderson E (2013)

Chronic hepatitis B: care delivery and patient knowledge in the Torres Strait region of Australia.

Australian Family Physician; 42(4): 225-231

The Kirby Institute (2013)

Highlighting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research at The Kirby Institute.

Sydney: The Kirby Institute

Topp L, Day CA, Wand H, Deacon RM, van Beek I, Haber PS, Shanahan M, Rodgers C, Maher L (2013)

A randomised controlled trial of financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion among people who inject drugs in Australia.

Preventive Medicine; 57(4): 297-303


Aratchige PE, Markey P, Webby R, Krause V (2012)

Hepatitis B in the Northern Territory – an analysis of hepatitis B notifications.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 19(2): 1-12

Liu B, Guthridge S, Li SQ, Markey P, Krause V, McIntyre P, Sullivan E, Ward J, Wood N, Kaldor JM (2012)

The end of the Australia antigen? An ecological study of the impact of universal newborn hepatitis B vaccination two decades on.

Vaccine; 30(50): 7309–7314

Towell V, Cowie B (2012)

Hepatitis B serology.

Australian Family Physician; 41(4): 212 - 214


Cross V, Larkins S (2011)

Management of chronic hepatitis B infection in the remote primary health care setting: the search for a suitable guideline.

Australian Journal of Rural Health; 19(2): 95-100

Hull B, Dey A, Mahajan D, Menzies R, McIntyre PB (2011)

Immunisation coverage annual report, 2009.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 35(2): 132-148

Williams S, Vally H, Fielding J, Cowie B (2011)

Chronic hepatitis B surveillance in Victoria, 1998–2008: instituting a 21st century approach to an old disease.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 35(1): 16–21


Carroll E, Page W, Davis JS (2010)

Screening for hepatitis B in East Arnhem Land: a high prevalence of chronic infection despite incomplete screening.

Internal Medicine Journal; 40(11): 784–787

Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association (2010)

CARPA standard treatment manual [5th ed.].

5th ed. Alice Springs: Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association

This manual assists practitioners to manage a range of health, social and work conditions when they arrive in central and northern Australia without any specific training in remote practice.

The manual topics include:

  • emergency and assessment
    • patterns of abdominal pain
    • burns
    • chest (breathing) injuries
  • child health
    • dental and oral problems
    • ear and hearing problems
    • chronic suppuratives lung disease
  • mental health and drug problems
    • mental health assessment
    • suicide risk
    • alcohol and other drugs
  • chronic disease
    • assessing and reducing cardiovascular risk
    • diabetes
    • heart failure
  • sexual health
    • HIV/AIDS
    • sexually transmitted infections in men
  • general topics
    • eye problems
    • rheumatic fever and heart disease
    • hepatitis.

This resource ensures a sensitive and comprehensive approach to primary health care for Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory and beyond. Access to the manual requires registration which is free.

The sixth edition of the CARPA manual was released in 2014.

Abstract adapted from Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association

Chiu C, Dey A, Wang H, Menzies R, Deeks S, Mahajan D, Macartney K, Brotherton J, Jardine A, Quinn H, Jelfs J, Booy R, Lawrence G, Jayasinghe S, Roberts A, Senanayake S, Wood N, McIntyre P (2010)

Vaccine preventable diseases in Australia, 2005 to 2007.

Canberra: Australian Department of Health and Ageing

Dent E, Selvey CE, Bell A, Davis J, McDonald MI (2010)

Incomplete protection against hepatitis B among remote Aboriginal adolescents despite full vaccination in infancy.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 34(4): 435-439

Hull BP, Mahajan D, Dey A, Menzies RI, McIntyre PB (2010)

Immunisation coverage annual report, 2008.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 34(3): 241-258

Markey P (2010)

Nearing elimination of hepatitis A in the Northern Territory following immunisation of Indigenous infants.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 17(3): 1-6

OzFoodNet Working Group (2010)

Monitoring the incidence and causes of diseases potentially transmitted by food in Australia: annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2009.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 34(4): 396-426


Butler JRG, Korda RJ, Watson KJR, Watson AR (2009)

The impact of chronic hepatitis B in Australia: projecting mortality, morbidity, and economic impact.

Canberra: The Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health

Menzies RI, Singleton RJ (2009)

Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination policy for indigenous populations.

Pediatric Clinics of North America; 56(6): 1263-1283

Last updated: 26 August 2015
Return to top
general box


Share your information » Give us feedback » Sign our guestbook »