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Key references

References for the key publications about nutrition among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are listed here.


Australian Bureau of Statistics (2015)

National Health Survey: first results, Australia, 2014-15.

Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics


Browne J, Hayes R, Gleeson D (2014)

Aboriginal health policy: is nutrition the ‘gap’ in ‘Closing the Gap’?.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 38(4): 362-369


Aquino D, Marley JV, Senior K, Leonard D, Helmer J, Joshua A, Huddleston A, Ferguson H, Hobson V, Hadgraft N (2013)

Early Childhood Nutrition and Anaemia Prevention Project : summary report.

Darwin: The Fred Hollows Foundation, Indigenous Australia Program

The Early childhood nutrition and anaemia prevention project investigated the feasibility and acceptability of micronutrient supplementation with 'Sprinkles', for the prevention of childhood anaemia, along with community-based nutrition promotion. The project was implemented in six remote communities, four in the Northern Territory (NT), one in Cape York in Queensland (Qld) and one in the East Kimberley region in Western Australia (WA). Project planning and development commenced in 2006, with project activities occurring between 2010 and 2012.

'Sprinkles' are a home-based micronutrient fortification product. Fortification of complementary foods with iron and other vitamins and minerals using multi-micronutrient powders such as 'Sprinkles' have been found to reduce anaemia and iron deficiency.

This report summarises the project development, program implementation, results of the evaluation of both project processes and outcomes, and provides recommendations for future policy, programs and research addressing infant and young child nutrition and anaemia in northern Australia. Major findings from the project included:

  • high rates of anaemia seen in infants at six months indicate that preventive strategies need to start earlier
  • the relative contribution of maternal and other factors related to anaemia in infancy need to be better understood.

There were three main recommendations as a result of the project:

  • to determine if the high rates of early onset anaemia found in ENCAPP are widespread across remote communities in northern Australia and take action to address the findings
  • investigate the relative contribution of micronutrient status and other determinants of anaemia in Aboriginal infants and young children from the remote communities across northern Australia
  • investigate strategies to address the determinants of anaemia and effectively prevent anaemia and iron deficiency in Aboriginal infants and young children in remote northern Australian communities.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013)

Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health survey: first results, Australia, 2012-13.

Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics

This summary of the first findings from the 2012-13 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health survey provides information on long-term health conditions, health risk factors, selected social and emotional wellbeing indicators, health measurements, and health related actions for Indigenous Australian peoples. Information is included on Indigenous peoples living in remote and non-remote areas.

Abstract adapted from Australian Bureau of Statistics

Pollard C (2013)

Selecting interventions for food security in remote Indigenous communities.

In: Farmar-Bowers Q, Higgins V, Millar J, eds. Food security in Australia. New York: Springer: 97-112

Improving the food security of people living in remote Indigenous communities is an identified priority of Australian Governments. As Indigenous Australians suffer a disproportionate burden from diet-related diseases, improved food security will result in health gains.

The community store plays a key role in the provision of food and other services in remote Indigenous communities. This chapter focuses on the potential role of community stores to improve food and nutrition security and subsequent health outcomes. It describes store-based government policy approaches to improving the nutrition and health of Aboriginal people.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012)

Australia's food & nutrition 2012.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Black A (2012)

The impact of food subsidy programs on the health of disadvantaged populations : an evaluation of subsidised fruit and vegetables in a rural Aboriginal medical service.

Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of South Australia: Adelaide

Gwynn J (2012)

The food and nutrient intake and physical activity of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous rural children.

Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of Newcastle: Newcastle


Clifford A, Jackson Pulver L, Richmond R, Shakeshaft A, Ivers R (2011)

Smoking, nutrition, alcohol and physical activity interventions targeting Indigenous Australians: rigorous evaluations and new directions needed.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 35(1): 38–46


Dietitians Association of Australia, Public Health Association Australia (2009)

Food security for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples policy.

Canberra: Dietitians Association of Australia and Public Health Association Australia


Brewster D, Nelson C, Couzos S (2008)

Failure to thrive.

In: Couzos S, Murray R, eds. Aboriginal primary health care: an evidence-based approach. 3rd ed. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press: Chapter 7: 265-307

Aboriginal Primary Health Care is a definitive guide to best-practice management of the major health problems facing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The text is intended to assist health practitioners, policy makers and communities in influencing health determinants, it also advocates for overcoming inertia to change and to strengthen health care provision within a human rights context.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract


Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (2006)

Fairstore: a best practice guide for stores serving remote and Indigenous communities.

Dickson, ACT: Australian Competition and Consumer Commission

National Rural Health Alliance (2006)

Providing fresh food in remote Indigenous communities: position paper.

Deakin West, ACT: National Rural Health Alliance


NSW Centre for Overweight and Obesity (2005)

A literature review of the evidence for interventions to address overweight and obesity in adults and older Australians (with special reference to people living in rural and remote Australia and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders).

Sydney: Australian Department of Health and Ageing


Leonard D, Turner C, Hobson V, Pollard C, Lewis J, Bowcock R (2003)

FoodNorth: food for health in north Australia.

Perth: North Australia Nutrition Group, Department of Health, Western Australia

Pollard C, Lewis J, Woods L, Beurle D (2003)

National Obesity Taskforce - Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander workshop, Adelaide, 10-11 September 2003: outcomes.

Adelaide: National Obesity Taskforce


National Public Health Partnership (2001)

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition Strategy and Action Plan 2000-2010 and first phase activities 2000-2003.

Canberra: National Public Health Partnership


National Health and Medical Research Council (2000)

Nutrition in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: an information paper.

Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council


Engeler T, McDonald M, Miller M, Groos A, Black M, Leonard D (1998)

Review of current interventions and identification of best practice currently used by community based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island health service providers in promoting and supporting breastfeeding and appropriate infant nutrition.

Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services

Last updated: 14 February 2018
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