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Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin
 
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Amphetamines, Ecstasy, Heroin and other drugs

2014

Degenhardt L, Larney S, Gisev N, Trevena J, Burns L, Kimber J, Shanahan M, Butler T, Mattick RP, Weatherburn D (2014)

Imprisonment of opioid-dependent people in New South Wales, Australia, 2000–2012: a retrospective linkage study.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 38(2): 165–170

2013

Poeder F, ed. (2013)

Stories from the other side: an exploration of injecting drug use in NSW prisons.

Sydney: NSW Users and AIDS Association

Abhilash D, Kemp R, Ward J, Henderson S, Williams S, Smirnov A, Plotnikova M, Najman JM (2013)

Findings from the Queensland injecting drug survey (QuIDS): comparing hepatitis C risk behaviours among Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs.

HIV Australia; 11(3): 37 - 40

Alavi M, Grebely J, Micallef M, Dunlop AJ, Balcomb AC, Day CA, Treloar C, Bath N, Haber PS, Dore GJ, Enhancing Treatment for Hepatitis C in Opioid Substitution Settings (ETHOS) Study Group (2013)

Assessment and treatment of hepatitis c virus infection among people who inject drugs in the opioid substitution setting: ETHOS study.

Clinical Infectious Diseases; 57(Suppl 2): S62-S69

Australian Crime Commission (2013)

Illicit drug data report 2011-12.

Canberra: Australian Crime Commission

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013)

Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2010-11: state and territory findings.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013)

Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2011-12.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report presents data on alcohol and other drug treatment agencies and the episodes of treatment provided in Australia for 2011-2012. Alcohol was the most common principal drug of concern, accounting for almost half of these closed episodes, and counselling was the most common type of treatment. The report shows that Indigenous Australians were more likely to use alcohol, cannabis and amphetamines than non-Indigenous Australians, although Indigenous Australians were more likely to abstain from alcohol than non-Indigenous Australians. Data for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is presented throughout the report.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013)

Developing client-based analyses for reporting on the alcohol and other drug treatment services.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013)

National opioid pharmacotherapy statistics annual data collection: 2012.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian National Council on Drugs (2013)

ANCD position paper: needle and syringe programs.

Canberra: Australian National Council on Drugs

Fetherston J, Carruthers S, Butler T, Wilson D, Sindicich N (2013)

Rates of injection in prison in a sample of Australian-injecting drug users.

Journal of Substance Use; 18(1): 65-73

Indig D, Wodak AD, Richmond RL, Butler TG, Archer VA, Wihelm KA (2013)

Heroin use impairs smoking cessation among Australian prisoners.

BMC Public Health; 13: 1200

Retrieved 19 December 2013 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1200

Lee KSK, Dawson A, Conigrave KM (2013)

The role of an Aboriginal women's group in meeting the high needs of clients attending outpatient alcohol and other drug treatment.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 32(6): 618–626

Moore E, Winter R, Indig D, Greenberg D, Kinner SA (2013)

Non-fatal overdose among adult prisoners with a history of injecting drug use in two Australian states.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence; 133(1): 45 - 51

National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Committee (2013)

An economic analysis for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders: prison vs residential treatment.

Canberra: Australian National Council on Drugs

This report was commissioned by the National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Committee to:

  • identify the patterns and prevalence of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the prison system
  • outline the impacts and implications of incarceration for Indigenous Australians
  • analyse the costs and benefits of addressing Indigenous problematic substance use with treatment, particularly residential rehabilitation, as compared to prison.

A number of sources of information, including a scan of relevant literature and data repositories and consultations with key stakeholders, were used to inform the analysis.

The report highlights the cost and health benefits of diversionary programs and community residential rehabilitation for Indigenous people who have been convicted of non-violent, substance use related offences.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Post JJ, Arain A, Lloyd AR (2013)

Enhancing assessment and treatment of hepatitis C in the custodial setting.

Clinical Infectious Diseases; 57(Suppl 2): S70-S74

Stafford J, Burns L (2013)

Australian drug trends 2012. Findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS).

Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

Warhaft G (2013)

Hepatitis C: part of the punishment?.

Of Substance; 11(3): 22-25

2012

Australian Crime Commission (2012)

Illicit drug data report 2010-11.

Canberra: Australian Crime Commission

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services report, 2010-11: OATSIH services reporting - key results.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report presents the main findings from the Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (OATSIH) Services Reporting data collection. Data were collected by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) from primary health-care services, substance use services and Bringing Them Home and Link Up counselling services that received funding through OATSIH in 2010-11. The health services included those provided through Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal community controlled health organisations.

The information covered the number of clients seen, episodes of care and client contacts. This information helps to inform Indigenous health policy, and program development and implementation. Primary health care services provided 2.5 million episodes of care to about 428,000 Indigenous clients; substance use services provided treatment and assistance to about 28,600 clients and Bringing Them Home and Link Up counselling services were accessed by about 11,800 clients.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012)

Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2010-11: report on the National Minimum Data Set.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012)

National opioid pharmacotherapy statistics annual data collection: 2011 report.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report provides information gathered from the National Opioid Pharmacotherapy Statistics Annual Data (NOPSAD) collection. Information in this report includes:

  • definition of opioids, and information on opioid dependence and treatment options
  • demographic information on clients
  • information about prescriber services and 'dosing points'
  • information about the opioid pharmacotherapy system in Australia.

This report includes information specific to Indigenous Australians.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Berry SL, Crowe TP, Deane FP, Billingham M, Bhagerutty Y (2012)

Growth and empowerment for Indigenous Australians in substance abuse treatment.

International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction; 10(6): 970-983

Department of Health and Human Services (2012)

Tasmanian opioid pharmacotherapy program: policy and clinical practice standards.

Hobart: Tasmanian Government

Doolan I, Najman JM, Cherney A (2012)

Health needs of Australian Indigenous young people entering detention.

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health; 48(10): 896–901

Gately N, Fleming J, Morris R, McGregor C (2012)

Amphetamine users and crime in Western Australia, 1999–2009.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Gill A (2012)

Opioids.

In: Lee K, Freeburn B, Ella S, Miller W, Perry J, Conigrave K, eds. Handbook for Aboriginal alcohol and drug work. Sydney: University of Sydney: 139-158

This chapter is from the Handbook for Aboriginal alcohol and drug work and provides information for alcohol and other drug (AOD) workers on opioids, including:

  • opioid use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
  • commonly used opioids
  • opioids' effects on the body
  • how to recognise harms from opioid use
  • how to recognise opioid dependence
  • how to recognise opioid withdrawal
  • how to assess a client who uses opioids
  • how to help a person who uses opioids
  • opioid overdose
  • reducing opioid-related harms if a client cannot will not quit
  • preventing opioid use.

Abstract adapted from the University of Sydney

Heffernan E, Anderson K, Dev A (2012)

Inside Out: the mental health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in custody report.

Brisbane: Queensland Health

Lea T (2012)

Other drugs.

In: Lee K, Freeburn B, Ella S, Miller W, Perry J, Conigrave K, eds. Handbook for Aboriginal alcohol and drug work. Sydney: University of Sydney: 217-236

This chapter is from the Handbook for Aboriginal alcohol and drug work and provides information for alcohol and other drug (AOD) workers on other drugs, including:

  • kava
  • GHB
  • ketamine
  • hallucinogens (magic mushrooms and LSD)
  • other sedatives
  • betel nut (areca nut)
  • khat
  • steroids.

Abstract adapted from the University of Sydney

Northern Territory poisons and dangerous drugs act (2012)

Northern Territory Government

Senior k, William I, Chenhall R, Cunningham T, Nagel T, Loyd R, McMahon R (2012)

Developing successful diversionary schemes for youth from remote Aboriginal communities.

Canberra: Criminology Research Advisory Council

Taussig I, Jones C (2012)

Penalties and reconviction risk among offenders convicted of drug driving.

Sydney: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research

Victorian Dual Diagnosis Education and Training Unit (2012)

The relationship between alcohol and drugs and mental health: a resource book for Aboriginal workers.

Fitzroy, Vic: Victorian Dual Diagnosis Education and Training Unit

This book provides information on the relationship between mental health and alcohol and other drug use for the Aboriginal alcohol and other drug (AOD), and social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) workforce. The book covers the following topics:

  • drugs and the body and mind connection
  • mental illness
  • the relationship between mental health, and alcohol and other drugs
  • stages of change
  • interventions
  • treatment options
  • resources and services.

This book is one of three key resources produced as part of the of the Our healing ways project. It was developed by the Victorian Dual Diagnosis Initiative (VDDI) Education and Training Unit and funded by the Mental Health, Drugs and Regions Division of the Department of Health Victoria.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

White V, Bariola E (2012)

Australian secondary school students' use of tobacco, alcohol, and over-the-counter and illicit substances in 2011.

Canberra: Drug Strategy Branch, Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing

Winstock A (2012)

Stimulants.

In: Lee K, Freeburn B, Ella S, Miller W, Perry J, Conigrave K, eds. Handbook for Aboriginal alcohol and drug work. Sydney: University of Sydney: 159-172

This chapter is from the Handbook for Aboriginal alcohol and drug work and provides information for alcohol and other drug (AOD) workers on stimulants, including:

  • stimulant use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
  • commonly used stimulants
  • stimulants' effects on the body
  • how to recognise harms from stimulants
  • how to recognise stimulant dependence
  • how to recognise stimulant withdrawal
  • how to assess a client who uses stimulants
  • how to help a person who uses stimulants
  • stimulant overdose
  • reducing the harms related to stimulant use if a person cannot or will not quit
  • preventing stimulant use.

Abstract adapted from the University of Sydney

2011

Australian Crime Commission (2011)

Illicit drug data report 2009-10.

Canberra: Australian Crime Commission

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011)

National opioid pharmacotherapy statistics annual data collection: 2010 report.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011)

Substance use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Harrod ME, Ward J, Graham S, Butler T (2011)

Australian prisons: the key to closing the gap and ensuring HIV remains low in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

HIV Australia; 9(1): 17-19

Kratzmann M, Mitchell E, Ware J, Banach L, Ward J, Ryan J, Sutton L, Griffiths P, Saunders M (2011)

Injecting drug use and associated harms among Aboriginal Australians.

Canberra: Australian National Council on Drugs

The project Injecting drug use and associated harms among Aboriginal Australians was undertaken by Anex and the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (NACCHO), and commissioned by Australian National Council on Drugs (ANCD). The findings from the project are summarised in this report. Copies can be obtained from the ANCD Secretariat or the ANCD website.

Abstract adapted from ANCD

Ness A, Payne J (2011)

Patterns of mephedrone, GHB, Ketamine and Rohypnol use among police detainees: findings from the DUMA program.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Stafford J, Burns L (2011)

Australian drug trends 2010: findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS).

: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales

Ward J, Topp L, Iversen J, Wand H, Akre S, Kaldor J, Maher L (2011)

Higher HCV antibody prevalence among Indigenous clients of needle and syringe programs.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 35(5): 234-245

Watkins RE, Mak DB, Connelly C (2011)

Identifying high risk groups for sexually transmitted infections and blood borne viruses upon admission to prison in Western Australia.

Rural and Remote Health; 11: 1621

Retrieved 16 March 2011 from http://www.rrh.org.au/publishedarticles/article_print_1621.pdf

2010

Australian Department of Health and Ageing (2010)

Sixth national HIV strategy 2010-2013.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Australia

Australian Department of Health and Ageing (2010)

Third national Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander blood borne viruses and sexually transmissible infections strategy 2010 – 2013.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Australia

The Third National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Blood Borne Viruses and Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy was released in March 2010. It is one of a set of five national strategies aimed at reducing the transmission of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses (BBVs) and their morbidity, mortality and personal and social impacts.

The strategy highlights ongoing challenges in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities relating to STIs and BBVs. These include:

  • sustained and unacceptably high rates of bacterial STIs in many remote communities
  • the rate of acquisition of HIV and viral hepatitis through injecting drug use
  • ongoing incidence of HIV infections among men who have sex with men
  • lack of access for many communities to culturally appropriate primary health care services.

The new priority action areas identified in the strategy are:

  • annual, routine and systematic testing, treatment and follow-up for bacterial STIs of sexually active Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people
  • increased access to treatment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people who test positive to bacterial STIs;
  • increased primary prevention activities that seek to reduce the number of new cases of HIV and viral hepatitis among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who inject drugs
  • competent and accredited workforces consistent across all jurisdictions to address the scope of work outlined in the strategy.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Department of Health and Ageing (2010)

Third national hepatitis C strategy 2010 - 2013.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Australia

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2010)

National opioid pharmacotherapy statistical annual data collection: 2009 report : [2010 data guide included].

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2010)

National opioid pharmacotherapy statistics annual data collection: 2009 report.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Boonwaat L, Haber PS, Levy MH, Lloyd AR (2010)

Establishment of a successful assessment and treatment service for Australian prison inmates with chronic hepatitis C.

Medical Journal of Australia; 192(9): 496-500

Department of Health and Ageing (2010)

National needle and syringe programs strategic framework 2010-2014.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Australia

Hickey S, McIlwraith F, Alati R (2010)

Licit drug use by ecstasy users, nationally and in Queensland: are there gender differences?.

Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

Indig D, McEntyre E, Page J, Ross B (2010)

2009 NSW inmate health survey: Aboriginal health report.

Sydney: Justice Health

Iversen J, Topp L, Shying K, Maher L (2010)

Australian NSP Survey National Data Report 2005-2009: prevalence of HIV, HCV and injecting and sexual behaviour among IDUs at Needle and Syringe Programs.

Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research

Iversen J, Topp L, Maher L (2010)

Drug injection trends among participants in the Australian Needle and Syringe Program Survey (ANSPS), 2005 - 2009.

Sydney: National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre

Iversen J, Wand H, Gonnermann A, Maher L (2010)

Gender differences in hepatitis C antibody prevalence and risk behaviours amongst people who inject drugs in Australia 1998-2008.

International Journal of Drug Policy; 21(6): 471-476

Kwan K, Mak D, Giele C, Bastian L, Bevan J, Greville H, Lilley G (2010)

The epidemiology of notifiable sexually transmitted infections and blood-borne viruses in Western Australia 2008.

Perth, WA: Public Health, Western Australia

Larney S (2010)

Does opioid substitution treatment in prisons reduce injecting-related HIV risk behaviours? A systematic review.

Addiction; 105(2): 216 - 223

Mapfumo L, Waples-Crowe P, Ware J (2010)

Action research: addressing HIV risks related to injecting drug use in Victorian Aboriginal communities.

Melbourne: Anex

McAtamney A, Willis K (2010)

Policing cannabis and other illicit substances in remote Indigenous Australian communities.

Retrieved March 2010 from http://ncpic.org.au/ncpic/publications/aic-bulletins/article/policing-cannabis-and-other-illicit-substances-in-remote-indigenous-australian-communities

McMahon T, Moreton RJ, Luisi BN (2010)

Guarding against an HIV epidemic within an Aboriginal community and cultural framework; lessons from NSW.

New South Wales Public Health Bulletin; 21(4): 83-85

National Centre in HIV Epidemiology & Clinical Research (2010)

Bloodborne viral and sexually transmitted infections in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: surveillance and evaluation report 2010.

Sydney, NSW: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology & Clinical Research, University of New South Wales

This annual report provides statistical information on the incidence of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and bloodborne viruses (BBVs) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and other Australians. In most instances, the data utilised in this report are to the end of 2009 and relate specifically to chlamydia, donovanosis, gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.

Consistent with previous surveillance reports, this report reveals that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to experience significantly higher rates of STIs and BBVs when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Numerous factors are identified as contributing to the higher rates of STIs and BBVs in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population including:

  • less access to health services
  • shortage of clinical staff
  • transmission dynamics
  • high rates of screening
  • a younger, more mobile population
  • socioeconomic disadvantage
  • shame and historical factors
  • mainstream STI and BBV social marketing messages.

Ultimately this report seeks to encourage further dialogue on minimising the risks associated with the transmission of STIs and BBVs among Indigenous peoples, as well as the resultant personal and social implications.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

National Centre in HIV Epidemiology & Clinical Research (2010)

HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia: annual surveillance report 2010.

Sydney, NSW: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology & Clinical Research, University of New South Wales

Smith G, White V (2010)

Use of tobacco, alcohol, and over-the-counter and illicit substances among Indigenous students participating in the Australian Secondary Students Alcohol and Drug Survey 2008.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Australia

Stafford J, Burns L (2010)

Australian drug trends 2009: findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS).

Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales

2009

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2009)

National opioid pharmacotherapy statistics annual data collection: 2008 report.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Hepatitis Australia, National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation, Aldo Spina Consultancy Services (2009)

Mapping and scoping of hepatitis C education and prevention activities in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: survey of Aboriginal community controlled health services.

Canberra: Hepatitis Australia

Lintzeris N (2009)

The new wave of opioid dependence.

Of Substance; 7(3): 10-11

McNally S, Latham R (2009)

Recognising and responding to hepatitis C in Indigenous communities in Victoria: a research project exploring barriers to hepatitis C treatment.

Melbourne: Australian Research Centre in Sex Health and Society

This report presents the outcomes of a study conducted in Victoria that investigated access to hepatitis C treatment services among Indigenous people. The research study evolved out of concern for the high rate of hepatitis C in the Indigenous population and the low uptake of treatment and care. Through interviews with service providers and Indigenous people, a number of treatment barriers were revealed, namely the low priority afforded to hepatitis C due to competing co-morbidities. Shame and lack of knowledge about hepatitis C among Indigenous people and health care workers, were also identified as major barriers to treatment. Several suggestions and recommendations have been offered for addressing these treatment barriers, including placing greater emphasis on eating well and reducing alcohol intake.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Siggins Miller (2009)

Evaluation and monitoring of the National Drug Strategy 2004-2009.

Canberra: National Drug Strategy

Stafford J, Sindicich N, Burns L, Cassar J, Cogger S, de Graaff B, George J, Moon C, Phillips B, Quinn B, White N (2009)

Australian Drug Trends 2008: findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS).

Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales

Tetstall E, Liu AJ, An EI, Canalese J, Nanan R (2009)

Pregnancy and neonatal characteristics of opioid-dependent Indigenous Australians: a rural and metropolitan comparison.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 49(3): 279-84

Wilson D, Kwon A, Anderson J, Thein R (2009)

Return on investment 2: evaluating the cost-effectiveness of needle and syringe programs in Australia.

Sydney: Department of Health and Ageing, Australia

2008

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2008)

Summary of hepatitis C among Indigenous Australians.

Retrieved from http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/infectious-conditions/hepatitis/reviews/our-review-c

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2008)

National opioid pharmacotherapy statistics annual data collection: 2007 report.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Catto M, Thomson N (2008)

Review of illicit drug use among Indigenous peoples.

Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin; 8(4): 1-32

Degenhardt L, Kinner SA, Roxburgh A, Black E, Bruno R, Fetherston J, Fry CL (2008)

Drug use and risk among regular injecting drug users in Australia: does age make a difference?.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 27(4): 357-360

Drug and Alcohol Office (WA) (2008)

Aboriginal blood-borne virus scoping project literature review.

Perth: Drug and Alcohol Office (WA)

The 'Aboriginal Blood-Borne Virus Scoping Project' was undertaken to investigate the enablers and barriers of accessing needle and syringe programs in Kalgoorlie and the south-west for Aboriginal people who inject drugs (APWIDs). The 'Sexual Health and Blood Borne Virus Program' from the Department of Health (WA) funded the Alcohol and Drug Office to conduct the scoping project.

The scoping project was undertaken in response to the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Sexual Health Strategy 2005-2008 (2005), identifying HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B and C as significant health issues for Indigenous people who inject drugs, and the need to strengthen harm reduction programs in this area, as well as recent data identifying a higher number of HIV diagnoses as a result of injecting drug use among the Indigenous population compared to the non-Indigenous population, and greater rates of Hepatitis B and C diagnoses as a result of injecting drug use among the Indigenous population compared to the non-Indigenous population.

The 'Aboriginal Blood-Borne Virus Scoping Project Literature Review' was undertaken as a compendium to the project. The review examined recent national and local studies of Indigenous injecting drug use and associated harm reduction strategies, and related projects and initiatives.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Teesson M, Mills K, Ross J, Darke S, Williamson A, Harvard A (2008)

The impact of treatment on 3 years' outcome for heroin dependence: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS).

Addiction; 103(1): 80-88

URBIS (2008)

A review of enablers and barriers of Indigenous drug users accessing needle and syringe programs - a report for the COAG Multilateral Group on needle and syringe programs.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Australia

 
Last updated: 17 April 2014
 
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