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Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin Alcohol and other drugs knowledge centre Yarning Places


This section provides recent references compiled from our bibliographic database about communicable diseases relating to Indigenous environmental health. This information is of particular relevance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander environmental health practitioners. References include journal articles, reports, theses and other literature. To access our complete database please use our bibliography.


Abdalla T, Hendrickx D, Fathima P, Walker R, Blyth CC, Carapetis JR, Bowen AC, Moore HC (2017)

Hospital admissions for skin infections among Western Australian children and adolescents from 1996 to 2012.

PLoS ONE; 12(11): e0188803

Retrieved from

Donnan EJ, Coulter C, Simpson G, Clark J, Nourse C (2017)

Paediatric tuberculosis in Queensland, Australia: overrepresentation of cross-border and Indigenous children.

International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease; 21(3): 263-269

Hardy M, Engelman D, Steer A (2017)

Scabies: a clinical update.

Australian Family Physician; 46(5): 264-268

Hudson EG, Brookes VJ, Dürr S, Ward MP (2017)

Domestic dog roaming patterns in remote northern Australian indigenous communities and implications for disease modelling.

Preventive Veterinary Medicine; 146(2017): 52-60

Lange FD, Jones K, Ritte R, Brown HE, Taylor HR (2017)

The impact of health promotion on trachoma knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) of staff in three work settings in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 11(5): e0005503

Retrieved from

Molloy S, Burleigh A, Dürr S, Ward MP (2017)

Roaming behaviour of dogs in four remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia: preliminary investigations.

Australian Veterinary Journal; 95(3): 55-63

Nepal S, Thomas SL, Franklin RC, Taylor KA, Massey PD (2017)

Systematic literature review to identify methods for treating and preventing bacterial skin infections in Indigenous children.

Australasian Journal of Dermatology; Early View( 1-7

Ostrowski JA, MacLaren G, Alexander J, Stewart P, Gune S, Francis JR, Ganu S, Festa M, Erickson SJ, Straney L, Schlapbach LJ (2017)

The burden of invasive infections in critically ill Indigenous children in Australia.

Medical Journal of Australia; 206(2): 78-84

Quilty S, Kaye TS, Currie BJ (2017)

Crusted scabies in northern and central Australia - now is the time for eradication [letter].

Medical Journal of Australia; 206(2): 96

Quilty S (2017)

Why the housing shortage exacerbates scabies in Indigenous communities.

Retrieved 7 February 2017 from

Shapiro AJ, Brown G, Norris JM, Bosward KL, Marriot DJ, Balakrishnan N, Breitschwerdt EB, Malik R (2017)

Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases of dogs in North-west New South Wales and the Northern Territory, Australia.

BMC Veterinary Research; 13: 238

Retrieved 15 August 2017 from

Smout F, Schrieber L, Speare R, Skerratt LF (2017)

More bark than bite: comparative studies are needed to determine the importance of canine zoonoses in Aboriginal communities. A critical review of published research.

Zoonoses and Public Health; 64(7): 495-504

Smout FA, Skerratt LF, Butler JRA, Johnson CN, Congdon BC, Thompson RCA (2017)

The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: an emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

One Health; 3: 66-69

Stewart JD, Smith S, Binotto E, McBride WJ, Currie BJ, Hanson J (2017)

The epidemiology and clinical features of melioidosis in Far North Queensland: Implications for patient management.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 11(3): 1-15

Thomas J, Walker E, Peterson G, D'Cunha NM (2017)

Why simple school sores often lead to heart and kidney disease in Indigenous children.

Retrieved 11 December 2017 from

Thomas S, Crooks K, Taylor K, Massey PD, Williams R, Pearce G (2017)

Reducing recurrence of bacterial skin infections in Aboriginal children in rural communities: new ways of thinking, new ways of working.

Australian Journal of Primary Health; Online early(

Vino T, Singh GR, Davison B, Campbell PT, Lydeamore MJ, Robinson A, McVernon J, Tong SYC, Geard N, Nishiura H (2017)

Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases.

PeerJ; 5: e3958

Retrieved 26 October 2017 from

Western Australian Department of Public Health (2017)

Aboriginal environmental health newsletter - Campfire.

Retrieved 2016 from

Campfire is an electronic newsletter produced by the Environmental Health Directorate of Western Australia (WA).

It showcases showcase the achievements and activities of Aboriginal environmental health practitioners and their colleagues in WA. Newsletter topics from previous editions include:

  • water management
  • trachoma education and training 
  • dog health training
  • community programs
  • training opportunities.

The Directorate invites submissions of articles for Campfire via the contacts below.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract


Bowen AC, Harris T, Holt DC, Giffard PM, Carapetis JR, Campbell PT, McVernon J, Tong SY (2016)

Whole genome sequencing reveals extensive community-level transmission of group A Streptococcus in remote communities.

Epidemiology and Infection; 144(9): 1991-1998

Boyd R, McGuinness S, Draper A, Neilson M, Krause V (2016)

Melioidosis awareness campaign ... Don't get melioidosis.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 23(1): 1-4

Boyd R, Patel M, Currie BJ, Holt DC, Harris T, Krause V (2016)

High burden of invasive group A streptococcal disease in the Northern Territory of Australia.

Epidemiology and Infection; 144(5): 1018-1027

Custodio J, Kelly G, Haenga M, Bell C, Bond T, Prouse I, Eastwood A (2016)

Working in partnership with communities at risk: the potential of integrated public health action during an outbreak of APSGN in remote Australia.

Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin; 16(4)

Retrieved 19 December 2016 from

Fischer K (2016)

High school outreach in remote northwest Queensland.

Melbourne: Lowitja Institute

This report was produced as part of the Science and Youth Minds: Youth Engagement in Skin Health project, which aimed to inspire young aspiring scientists and medical professionals by promoting the importance of medical research and health-related professions in an integrated school education and capacity building program.

Focusing on skin health, the project included the development and delivery of science workshops to senior high school students in remote areas of Queensland (Qld) during 2014 and 2015.

The report provides information about the project, and highlights:

  • remote engagement
  • health science workshops at remote schools
  • QIMR Berghofer laboratory work experience
  • benefits and outcomes
  • conclusions and recommendations.

The project was a collaboration between the Lowitja Institute and QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Garrard TA, Ross KE, Taylor MJ (2016)

Biocontrol for environmental control of the human parasite, Strongyloides stercoralis: a necessary next step.

Biological Control; In press(

Gibney KB, Cheng AC, Hall R, Leder K (2016)

An overview of the epidemiology of notifiable infectious diseases in Australia, 1991–2011.

Epidemiology and Infection; Firstview(

House of Representatives Standing Committee on Health (2016)

Report on the Inquiry into Chronic Disease Prevention and Management in Primary Health Care.

Canberra: Parliament of of Australia

Howarth T (2016)

Strongyloidiasis, scabies and impetigo - household clustering in a Northern Territory community.

Master of Public Health thesis, Charles Darwin University: Darwin

Hudson EG, Dhand N, Dürr S, Ward MP (2016)

A survey of dog owners in remote northern Australian Indigenous communities to inform rabies incursion planning.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 10(4): e0004649

Retrieved 26 April 2016 from

Kahn HA (2016)

Addressing primary risk factors for strongyloidiasis in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities through health promotion: a narrative review.

Australian Medical Student Journal; 7(2): 26-29

Kurucz N (2016)

Campaign to increase awareness of Murray Valley encephalitis in remote communities across the Northern Territory, Australia.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 23(1): 39

Lahra M, Enriquez R (2016)

Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2014.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 40(2): E221-E228

May PJ, Bowen AC, Carapetis JR (2016)

The inequitable burden of group A streptococcal diseases in Indigenous Australians.

Medical Journal of Australia; 205(5): 201-203

Menz J (2016)

Skin diseases in the Top End – hints for diagnosis and management.

Paper presented at the 2016 GP Forum. December 2016, Adelaide

Mofiz E, Seemann T, Bahlo M, Holt D, Currie BJ, Fischer K, Papenfuss AT (2016)

Mitochondrial genome sequence of the scabies mite provides insight into the genetic diversity of individual scabies infections.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 10(2): e0004384

Retrieved 12 February 2016 from

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System Annual Report Writing Group (2016)

Australia’s notifiable disease status, 2014: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

Canberra: National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System

Page W, Speare R (2016)

Chronic strongyloidiasis - don't look and you won't find.

Australian Family Physician; 45(1): 40-44

Ross KE, Bradbury RS, Garrard TA, O’Donahoo FJ, Shield JM, Page W, Miller A, Robertson G, Judd JA, Speare R (2016)

The National Strongyloides Working Group in Australia 10 workshops on: commendations and recommendations.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; Early view(

Royal Life Saving Society of Western Australia (2016)

The Photovoice Project: remote Aboriginal pool research.

Perth: Royal Life Saving Society of Western Australia

This report formally evaluates the Remote Aboriginal Swimming Pool (RASP) program run by the Royal Life Saving Society WA in Western Australia (WA). The RASP is a long-term remote pool management program that funds aquatic facilities, activities and staff in six communities in the Gascoyne, Pilbara and Kimberley regions. Using school attendance and pool data, as well yarning and photovoice processes, the evaluation sought to answer these questions:

  • How does having a swimming pool impact on the wellbeing (health and social) of remote Aboriginal communities?
  • What barriers exist to pool use across all age groups in the community and how can they be addressed?
  • Does the school-pool reward system and the use of the pool by the school help young people to overcome barriers to school attendance?
  • Do children and young people who often miss out on school still make use of the swimming pool and derive benefits?

The results of the evaluation provide justification for the expansion of the RASP program into more Aboriginal communities in WA.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Sheel M, Moreland NJ, Fraser JD, Carapetis J (2016)

Development of Group A streptococcal vaccines: an unmet global health need.

Expert Review of Vaccines; 15(2): 227-238

Sly JL, Moore SE, Gore F, Brune MN, Neira M, Jagals P, Sly PD (2016)

Children's environmental health indicators in Australia.

Annals of Global Health; 82(1): 156-168

Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (2016)

Overcoming Indigenous disadvantage: key indicators 2016 report.

Canberra: Productivity Commission

This report measures the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. It is the seventh report in a series commissioned by all Australian governments, designed to measure progress in overcoming the disadvantage faced by many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The report is produced by the Steering Committee, commissioned by the Council of Australia Governments (COAG), in consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The Steering Committee is advised by a working group made up of representatives from all Australian governments, the National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

The report measures progress in relation to COAG Closing the Gap targets and against 52 indicators. Progress is measured across a range of areas including governance, leadership and culture, early childhood, education, health, home and safe and supportive communities. The report also includes case studies on things that work to improve outcomes.

The information in this report can help inform the design of policies.

Abstract adapted from Productivity Commission

Tasani M, Tong SYC, Andrews R, Holt DC, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR, Bowen AC (2016)

The importance of scabies coinfection in the treatment considerations for impetigo.

Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; 35(4): 374-378

Thomas J, Carson CF, Peterson GM, Walton SF, Hammer KA, Naunton M, Davey RC, Spelman T, Dettwiller P, Kyle G, Cooper GM, Baby KE (2016)

Therapeutic potential of tea tree oil for scabies.

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 94(2): 258-266

Walter and Elizabeth Hall Institute of Medical Research (2016)


Retrieved 2016 from

This web page provides information on scabies.

Content covered via the resource includes:

  • scabies research conducted by Walter and Elizabeth Hall Institute of Medical Research
  • what scabies is
  • how scabies is treated
  • Scabies Mite Genome Project.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Warren JM, Birrell AL (2016)

Trachoma in remote Indigenous Australia: a review and public health perspective.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 40(S1): S48–S52


Beatson C (2015)

A collaborative public health response to cases of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis around Tennant Creek, 23-25 July 2014.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 22(1): 6-11

Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA) (2015)

Invasive meningococcal disease: CDNA national guidelines for public health units.

Canberra: Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA)

Di Palma M, Krause V (2015)

Notifiable diseases in Indigenous Australians in the NT: are we closing the gap?.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 22(4): 1-6

Gear RJ, Carter JC, Carapetis JR, Baird R, Davis JS (2015)

Changes in the clinical and epidemiological features of group A streptococcal bacteraemia in Australia's Northern Territory.

Tropical Medicine & International Health; 20(1): 40–47

Hays R, Esterman A, Giacomin P, Loukas A, McDermott R (2015)

Does Strongyloides stercoralis infection protect against type 2 diabetes in humans? Evidence from Australian Aboriginal adults.

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice; 107(3): 355–361

Hays R, McDermott R (2015)

Strongyloides stercoralis infection and antenatal care [letter].

Medical Journal of Australia; 203(1): 18-19

Hildebrand F, Pretty H, Saroukos C, Thompson S, Ganambarr R, Maymuru B, Bray M, Gunasekara D, Wills A, Prince S (2015)

One Disease update: tackling scabies and crusted scabies across the Top End.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 22(3): 15-17

Kearns TM, Speare R, Cheng AC, McCarthy J, Carapetis JR, Holt DC, Currie BJ, Page W, Shield J, Gundjirryirr R, Bundhala L, Mulholland E, Chatfield M, Andrews RM (2015)

Impact of an ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies prevalence in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 9(10): e0004151

Retrieved 30 October 2015 from

Lal A, Cornish LM, Fearnley E, Glass K, Kirk M (2015)

Cryptosporidiosis: a disease of tropical and remote areas in Australia.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 9(9): e0004078

Retrieved 22 September 2015 from

Lal A, Fearnley E, Kirk M (2015)

The risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children aged <5 years in Australia is highest in very remote regions.

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health; 12(9): 11815-11828

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System Annual Report Writing Group (2015)

Australia’s notifiable disease status, 2012: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

Canberra: National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System Annual Report Writing Group (2015)

Australia’s notifiable disease status, 2013: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

Canberra: National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System

Nogrady B (2015)

The Indigenous health gap: social factors hit hard.

Retrieved 7 July 2015 from

Packer J, Naz T, Harrington D, Jamie JF, Vemulpad SR, Yaegl Community Elders (2015)

Antimicrobial activity of customary medicinal plants of the Yaegl Aboriginal community of northern New South Wales, Australia: a preliminary study.

BMC Research Notes; 8: 276

Retrieved 30 June 2015 from

Quinn EK, Massey PD, Speare R (2015)

Communicable diseases in rural and remote Australia: the need for improved understanding and action.

Rural and Remote Health; 15: 3371

Retrieved 21 September 2015 from

Romani L, Steer AC, Whitfeld MJ, Kaldor JM (2015)

Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases; 15(8): 960-967

Shield J, Aland K, Kearns T, Gongdjalk G, Holt D, Currie B, Prociv P (2015)

Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994–1996.

Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal; 6(1): 44-51

Thomas J, Peterson GM, Walton SF, Carson CF, Naunton M, Baby KE (2015)

Scabies: an ancient global disease with a need for new therapies.

BMC Infectious Diseases; 15: 250

Retrieved 1 July 2015 from

Tong SY, Varrone L, Chatfield MD, Beaman M, Giffard PM (2015)

Progressive increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Indigenous populations in northern Australia from 1993 to 2012.

Epidemiology and Infection; 143(7): 1519-1523

Willcocks B, McAuliffe GN, Baird RW (2015)

Dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana): characteristics in the Northern Territory 2002–2013.

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health; Early view(


Asher AJ, Holt DC, Andrews RM, Power ML (2014)

Distribution of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B among children living in a remote Indigenous community of the Northern Territory, Australia.

PLOS ONE; 9(11): e112058

Bowen A (2014)

The skin sore trial: exploring a better treatment option for impetigo in Indigenous children living in remote Australia.

Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Charles Darwin University: Darwin

Bowen AC, Tong SYC, Andrews RM, O'Meara IM, McDonald MI, Chatfield MD, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR (2014)

Short-course oral co-trimoxazole versus intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin for impetigo in a highly endemic region: an open-label, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial.

The Lancet; 384(9960): 2132–2140

Bowen AC, Tong S, Chatfield MD, Carapetis JR (2014)

The microbiology of impetigo in Indigenous children: associations between Streptococcus pyogenes , Staphylococcus aureus, scabies, and nasal carriage.

BMC Infectious Diseases; 14: 3854

Retrieved 31 December 2014 from

Chang AB, Brown N, Toombs M, Marsh RL, Redding GJ (2014)

Lung disease in Indigenous children.

Paediatric Respiratory Reviews; 15(4): 325–332

Clarke MF, Rasiah K, Copland J, Watson M, Koehler AP, Dowling K, Marshall HS (2014)

The pertussis epidemic: informing strategies for prevention of severe disease.

Epidemiology and Infection; 141(3): 463-471

Crowe AL, Smith P, Ward L, Currie BJ, Baird R (2014)

Decreasing prevalence of Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) in the Northern Territory from 2002 to 2012.

Medical Journal of Australia; 200(5): 286-289

Currie B (2014)

Melioidosis: the 2014 revised RDH guideline.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 21(2): 4-8

Durr S, Ward MP (2014)

Roaming behaviour and home range estimation of domestic dogs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia using four different methods.

Preventive Veterinary Medicine; 117(2): 340–357

Edwards J, Moffat CD (2014)

Otitis Media in remote communities.

Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal; 21(9): 28

Einsiedel LJ, Pepperill C, Wilson K (2014)

Crusted scabies: a clinical marker of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection in central Australia [letter].

Medical Journal of Australia; 200(11): 633-634

Engelman D, Hofer A, Davis JS, Carapetis JR, Baird RW, Giffard PM, Holt DC, Tong StYC (2014)

Invasive staphylococcus aureus Infections in children in tropical Northern Australia.

Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society; 3(4): 304-311

Hare KM (2014)

The bacteriology of bronchiectasis and impact of azithromycin on upper and lower airway bacteria and resistance in Australian Indigenous children.

Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Charles Darwin University: Darwin

Holman D, Joyce SJ (2014)

A promising future: WA Aboriginal health programs: review of performance with recommendations for consolidation and advance.

Perth, WA: Department of Health, Western Australia

This report, also known as The Holman Review, evaluated the effectiveness of state-funded Indigenous health programs in Western Australia (WA), focusing on the measurement and achievement of clinical health outcomes. The report examined 184 Indigenous health programs and found that the majority deliver value for money and are underpinned by scientific evidence.

The report also found that primary prevention programs are under-funded relative to their significance and that service delivery in regional areas is fragmented. The report recommends that changes be made to the way the WA Department of Health funds and contracts Indigenous health services. The report was commissioned by the WA Department of Health at the request of the State Government and was prepared by independent expert Winthrop Professor D'Arcy Holman, Professor of Public Health at the University of WA.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Hotez PJ (2014)

Aboriginal populations and their neglected tropical diseases.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 8(1): e2286

Retrieved 30 January 2014 from

Jervis-Bardy J, Sanchez L, Carney AS (2014)

Otitis media in Indigenous Australian children: review of epidemiology and risk factors.

Journal of Laryngology and Otology; 128(Supplement S1): S16-S27

Kearns TM, Andrews R, Speare R, Cheng R, McCarthy J, Carapetis J, Currie B, Page W, Shield J (2014)

Prevalence of scabies and strongyloidiasis before and after MDA in a remote Aboriginal community in Northern Territory, Australia.

International Journal of Infectious Diseases; 21(Supplement 1): 252

Kirkwood CD, Roczo-Farkas S, Bishop RF, Barnes GL (2014)

Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2012.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 38(1): 1-7

Kirkwood CD, Roczo-Farkas S, Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Group (2014)

Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2013.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 38(4): E334-E342

Lahra MM, Enriquez RP (2014)

Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 38(4): E301-E308

Lange FD, Baunach E, McKenzie R, Taylor HR (2014)

Trachoma elimination in remote Indigenous Northern Territory communities: baseline health-promotion study.

Australian Journal of Primary Health; 20(1): 34-40

LangstaffR, Kopczynski A, Alvoen F, Marika W, Ganambarr R, Maymuru B, Wald L, Jenkins J, GalliersJ, Saroukos C, Thompson S, Foster T, Bray M, Gunasekara D, Vick S, Prince S (2014)

One Disease: tackling scabies and crusted scabies across the Top End.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 21(2): 18-19

Liu X, Walton S, Mounsey K (2014)

Vaccine against scabies: necessity and possibility.

Parasitology; 141(6): 725-732

Lokuge B, Burke T (2014)

A doctor's dream : a story of hope from the Top End.

Sydney: Allen &​ Unwin

Lokuge B, Kopczynski A, Woltmann A, Alvoen F, Connors C, Guyula T, Mulholland E, Cran S, Foster T, Lokuge K, Burke T, Prince S (2014)

Crusted scabies in remote Australia, a new way forward: lessons and outcomes from the East Arnhem Scabies Control Program.

Medical Journal of Australia; 200(11): 644-648

Lowbridge C (2014)

Informing the control of communicable diseases.

Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of NSW: Sydney

Marquardt T (2014)

Managing skin infections in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

Australian Family Physician; 43(1/2): 16-19

This article provides an overview of some of the issues to consider when managing a patient with a skin infection, which may impact on completion of treatment and development of complications in the long term.

The article recommends management consisting of treatment of the patient through medication and also general measures for the patient, their family and the community as a whole.

Content covered includes:

  • common causes of skin infections
  • bacterial infections
  • viral infections
  • fungal infections
  • parasitic infections
  • management of infections
  • recurrence/persistence
  • non-compliance
  • treatment failure/incorrect diagnosis
  • re-infection
  • isolation/risk of spread
  • general interventions
    • patient specific
    • community based.

The article also provides a case study of a child with scabies and a secondary bacterial component.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

McCaw JM, Glass K, Mercer GN, McVernon J (2014)

Pandemic controllability: a concept to guide a proportionate and flexible operational response to future influenza pandemics.

Journal of Public Health; 36(1): 5-12

Miller A, Smith ML, Judd JA, Speare R (2014)

Strongyloides stercoralis: systematic review of barriers to controlling strongyloidiasis for Australian Indigenous communities.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 8(9): e3141

Retrieved 25 September 2014 from

Quinn E, Massey P, Rosewell A, Smith M, Durrheim D (2014)

Improving ethnocultural data to inform public health responses to communicable diseases in Australia.

Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal; 5(2):

Quinn E (2014)

Improving the health of vulnerable groups: addressing health inequities through applied public health research.

Doctor of Public Health thesis, University of New South Wales: Sydney

Rac K, McLaughlin M (2014)

Melioidosis in the Torres Strait Islands: an 11 year audit 2001-2012.

Australian Medical Student Journal; 4(2): 62-65

Reynolds SL, Pike RN, Mika A, Blom AM, Hofmann A, Wijeyewickrema LC, Kemp D, Fischer K (2014)

Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 8(5): 1-8

Schrieber L, Towers R, Muscatello G, Speare R (2014)

Transmission of streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis between child and dog in an Aboriginal Australian community.

Zoonoses and Public Health; 61(2): 145–148

Selvey LA, Johansen CA, Broom AK, Antão C, Lindsay MD, Mackenzie JS, Smith DW (2014)

Rainfall and sentinel chicken seroconversions predict human cases of Murray Valley encephalitis in the north of Western Australia.

BMC Infectious Diseases; 14: 672

Retrieved 10 December 2014 from

Spurling GKP, Askew DA, Schluter PJ, Simpson F, Hayman N (2014)

Household number associated with middle ear disease at an urban Indigenous health service: a cross-sectional study.

Australian Journal of Primary Health; 20(3): 285-290

Swe PM, Fischer K (2014)

A scabies mite serpin interferes with complement-mediated neutrophil functions and promotes staphylococcal growth.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 8(6): e2928

Retrieved 19 June 2014 from

Williams S (2014)

National framework for communicable disease control.

Canberra: Australian Department of Health

Williamson DA, Coombs GW, Nimmo GR (2014)

Staphylococcus aureus “down under’: contemporary epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in Australia, New Zealand and the south west Pacific.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection; 20(7): 597–604


Anomie, MacRae A, Burns J, Poynton M, D'Costa B, Ride K, Gray C, Thomson N, Hoareau J, Trzesinski A, Levitan L (2013)

Overview of the health of Indigenous people in Western Australia 2013.

Perth, WA: Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

This report provides comprehensive information specific to Western Australia (WA) on:

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations
  • the context of Indigenous health
  • various measures of population health status
  • selected health conditions
  • health risk and protective factors.

This WA Overview draws on statistics and other published and unpublished materials to provide up-to-date, detailed information about the health of Indigenous people in WA in 2013. It highlights a number of improvements in certain aspects of Indigenous health, but underlines that ongoing work is needed to 'close the gap' in health status between Indigenous and other Australians.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Askew DA, Schluter PJ, Spurling GKP, Bond CJR, Brown ADH (2013)

Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children's exposure to stressful events: a cross-sectional study.

Medical Journal of Australia; 199(1): 42-45

Bareja C, Enhanced Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Surveillance Working Group (2013)

Enhanced Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Surveillance Working Group – quarterly surveillance report.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 37(2): E175-E178

Communicable Diseases Intelligence (2013)

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System tables.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 37(2): E180-E186

Cowling CS, Liu BC, Ward JS, Snelling TL, Kaldor JM, Wilson DP (2013)

Australian Trachoma Surveillance annual report, 2011.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 37(2): E121-E129

Davis JS, McGloughlin S, Tong SY, Walton SF, Currie BJ (2013)

A novel clinical grading scale to guide the management of crusted scabies.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 7(9): e2387

Retrieved 12 September 2013 from

Gough N, Oates S, Grillet S, Pholeros P (2013)

Infectious disease management for Aboriginal children of Far West NSW.

NSW Public Health Bulletin; 24(2): 95

Gunaratnem PJ, Gilmour RE, Lowbridge C, McIntyre PB (2013)

Invasive pneumococcal disease.

New South Wales Public Health Bulletin; 24(3): 142-147

Holt DC, Burgess STG, Reynolds S, Wajahat M, Fischer K (2013)

Intestinal proteases of free living and parasitic astigmatid mites.

Cell and Tissue Research; 351(2): 339-352

Holt DC, Fischer K (2013)

Novel approaches to an old disease: recent developments in scabies mite biology.

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases; 26(2): 110-115

Johnson B, Gunn J (2013)

A is for antibiotics: mass drug administration as a strategy to control trachoma in remote Indigenous communities.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 20(4): 23-28

Kearns T (2013)

Scabies and strongyloidiasis prevalence before and after a mass drug administration in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory.

Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Charles Darwin University: Darwin

Kline K, McCarthy JS, Pearson M, Loukas A, Hotez PJ (2013)

Neglected Tropical Diseases of Oceania: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 7(1): e1755

Retrieved 31 January 2013 from

Knope K, Whelan P, Smith D, Nicholson J, Moran R, Doggett S, Sly A, Hobby M, Kurucz N, Wright P (2013)

Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2010-11: annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 37(1): E1-E20

Lahra MM, Enriquez R (2013)

Meningococcal surveillance Australia reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2013.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 37(2): E179

Lai JYR, Cook H, Yip T, Berthelsen J, Gourley S, Krause V, Smith H, Leach AJ, Smith-Vaughan H (2013)

Surveillance of pneumococcal serotype 1 carriage during an outbreak of serotype 1 invasive pneumococcal disease in central Australia 2010–2012.

BMC Infectious Diseases; 13: 409

Retrieved 3 September 2013 from

Lu W, Wise MJ, Tay CY, Windsor HM, Marshall BJ, Peacock C, Perkins T (2013)

Comparative analysis of the full genome of the helicobacter pylori isolate, sahul64, identifies genes of high divergence.

Journal of Bacteriology; 196(10):

Morse LP, Smith J, Mehta J, Ward L, Cheng AC, Currie BJ (2013)

Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis from infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei: a 20-year prospective melioidosis study from northern Australia.

Journal of Orthopaedics; 10(2): 86-91

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System Annual Report Writing Group (2013)

Australia’s notifiable disease status, 2011: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

Canberra: National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System

Naz T (2013)

Chemical and biological studies of medicinal plants used by the Yaegl Aboriginal community of Australia.

Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Macquarie University: Sydney

New South Wales Ministry of Health (2013)

Year in review: health protection in NSW, 2012.

New South Wales Public Health Bulletin; 24(3): 105-118

Ross KE, O'Donahoo FJ, Garrard TA, Taylor MJ (2013)

Simple solutions to Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

BMJ; 2013: f6294

Retrieved from

Schrieber L (2013)

Are dogs a source of streptococci in Aboriginal Australian communities?.

: Animal Management in Rural and Remote Indigenous Communities

Smith-Vaughan HC, Binks MJ, Marsh RL, Kaestli M, Ward L, Hare KM, Pizzutto SJ, Thornton RB, Morris PS, Leach AJ (2013)

Dominance of haemophilus influenzae in ear discharge from Indigenous Australian children with acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation.

BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders; 13: 12

Retrieved 8 October 2013 from

Towers RJ, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ, Davies MR, Walker MJ (2013)

Extensive diversity of streptococcus pyogenes in a remote human population reflects global-scale transmission rather than localised diversification.

PLOS ONE; 8(9): e73851

Retrieved 16 September 2013 from

Williams P, Oosterhuis C, O'Neill M (2013)

A trichiasis screening program in the Kimberley 2008–2010.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 37(3): 290


Bailie RS, Stevens M, McDonald EL (2012)

The impact of housing improvement and socio-environmental factors on common childhood illnesses: a cohort study in Indigenous Australian communities.

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health; 66(9): 821-831

Baunach E, Lines D, Pedwel B, Lange F, Cooney R, Taylor HR (2012)

The development of culturally safe and relevant health promotion resources for effective trachoma elimination in remote Aboriginal communities.

Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal; 36(2): 9-11,16,19

Coombs GW, Goering RV, Chua KYL, Monecke S, Howden BP, Stinear TP, Ehricht R, O'Brien FG, Christiansen KJ (2012)

The molecular epidemiology of the highly virulent ST93 Australian community staphylococcus aureus strain.

PLOS ONE; 7(8): e43037

Retrieved from

Ejere HOD, Alhassan MB, Rabiu M (2012)

Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; (4): CD003659

Retrieved 2 September 2011 from

Lahra MM, Enriquez RP (2012)

Annual report of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme, 2011.

Communicable Diseases Intelligence; 36(3): E251–E262

Lange FD, Stanford E, Atkinson JR, Taylor HR (2012)

Clean faces, strong eyes: influencing knowledge, attitudes and practice with health promotion and social marketing [conference poster].

Paper presented at the Victorian Department of Health Aboriginal Health Conference 2012. May 2012, Melbourne

This poster was created for the Victorian Department of Health, Aboriginal Health Conference, 'Aboriginal health - everyone's responsibility', and uses images and bullet points to cover the following areas:

  • explanation and prevalence of trachoma
  • social, cultural, economic and environmental factors contributing to the spread of trachoma
  • goals and strategies of trachoma elimination programs
  • role of culturally appropriate health promotion resources and social marketing
  • trachoma knowledge, attitudes and practice in the Northern Territory in 2011.

Health promotion and social marketing initiatives are provided as case examples, including: the Trachoma story kits, Clean faces, strong eyes, and the Milpa, the trachoma goanna mascot.

It offers a useful summary for Aboriginal Health Workers, health professionals and other community workers looking to change attitudes and practice at the individual and community level.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Lokuge B (2012)

The East Arnhem Scabies Control Program: a community empowerment strategy to eliminate crusted scabies and scabies as public health issues in Australia: 12 month report from March 2011 (launch) to April 2012.

Darwin: One Disease At A Time

MacLachlan JH, Lavender CJ, Cowie BC (2012)

Effect of latitude on seasonality of tuberculosis, Australia, 2002–2011.

Emerging Infectious Diseases; 18(11): 1879-1881

Parameswaran U, Baird RW, Ward LM, Currie BJ (2012)

Melioidosis at Royal Darwin Hospital in the big 2009-2010 wet season: comparison with the preceding 20 year.

Medical Journal of Australia; 196(5): 345-348

Sanchez L, Carney S, Estermann A, Sparrow K, Turner D (2012)

An evaluation of the benefits of swimming pools for the hearing and ear health status of young Indigenous Australians: a whole-of-population study across multiple remote Indigenous communities.

Adelaide: School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Flinders University

This document reports on a study to investigate whether the use of swimming pools by school-age Indigenous children in remote semi-arid communities in central Australia results in the reduction and possible prevention of conductive hearing loss related to otitis media (OM) in these children.

Between 2009 - 2011, multiple clinical assessments of ear health and hearing - including Ear, nose and throat (ENT) diagnoses - were conducted on 813 school age children, which allow comparison of the results for children living in the four Anangu communities with a swimming pool compared to those living in the six communities without a pool. Many children were assessed on multiple occasions with 46% of the children being assessed on at least three of the possible six occasions over the three year study period (2107 child assessments in total).

The study's results demonstrate that access to swimming pools does not result in improvement in any of three principal measured indices of hearing or ear health. Additionally, in relation to the policy of 'no school, no pool', there is no evidence that access to a swimming pool results in improved school attendance. Further, results show previously undescribed seasonal differences in the prevalence of eardrum perforations in these Indigenous populations. Other results show significant associations between dry eardrum perforation and hearing loss and age.

This research report was funded by the Hearing Loss Prevention Program of the Department of Health and Ageing and conducted by Flinders University and its collaborating partner, the Anangu Education Service of the South Australian (SA) Department of Education and Child Development.

Abstract adapted from Flinders University

Spurling GKP, Askew DA, Schluter PJ, Simpson F, Hayman NE (2012)

Conventionally accepted risk factors do not explain higher rates of middle ear disease in remote Indigenous children: an ecological study [letter].

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 36(5): 491-492

Tong SYC, van Hal SJ, Einsiedel L, Currie BJ, Turnidge JD (2012)

Impact of ethnicity and socio-economic status on staphylococcus aureus bacteremia incidence and mortality: a heavy burden in Indigenous Australians.

BMC Infectious Diseases; 12: 249

Retrieved 9 October 2012 from

Last updated: 14 February 2018
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