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Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin
 
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Evidence and reporting

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2014

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2014)

Timing impact assessment for COAG Closing the Gap targets: child mortality.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report outlines the main determinants impacting on the Council of Australian Government's (COAG) target to halve the gap in child mortality within a decade. These include low birth weight, maternal health and behaviours (smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy) and inadequate or infrequent antenatal care. The report examines interventions that have been shown to be effective in reducing Indigenous child mortality; the time lags between program implementation and expected reductions in child mortality and its risk factors; and data availability to measure outcomes achieved.

Abstract adapted from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services (2014)

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services final biannual report January 2014.

Canberra: Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (2014)

Closing the gap: Prime Minister’s report 2014.

Canberra: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Australia

The Prime Minister tabled the sixth annual report on progress in Closing the Gap in Indigenous disadvantage in Parliament on 12 February 2014. This is the first report card delivered by Prime Minister Tony Abbott.

The Closing the gap Prime Minister's report 2014 outlines the commitments made by the new government, including:

  • consolidating the administration of Indigenous programs from eight government departments into the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet
  • establishing the Prime Ministers Advisory Council
  • increasing Indigenous school attendance through funding $28.4 million for a remote school attendance program
  • improving Indigenous access to employment by commissioning a review and funding employment initiatives
  • supporting a referendum for the recognition of the First Australians in the Australian constitution.

The report also outlines progress made towards meeting the close the gap targets:

  • Close the life expectancy gap within a generation (by 2031): there has been a small improvement, but progress will need to accelerate for the gap to close by 2031.
  • Halve the gap in mortality rates for Indigenous children under five years within a decade (by 2018): on track to be met.
  • Ensure all Indigenous four-year-olds in remote communities have access to early childhood education within five years (by 2013): data not available until April on whether the 2013 target was met.
  • Halve the gap for Indigenous children in reading, writing and numeracy within a decade (by 2018): progress has been made but only two of the eight areas have improved since 2008. This target is not on track.
  • Halve the gap for Indigenous people aged 20-24 years in Year 12 or equivalent attainment rates (by 2020): on track to be met.
  • Halve the gap in employment outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians within a decade (by 2018): no progress has been made.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Evidence and Evaluation Branch (2014)

National partnership agreement on remote service delivery: evaluation 2013.

Canberra: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

Grealy C, Kurti L, URBIS (2014)

Closing the gap in Aboriginal health outcomes initiative: final evaluation report.

Melbourne: Victorian Department of Health

The Victorian Closing the gap in health outcomes initiative is one component of Victoria's contribution to the national efforts to 'close the gap' in Indigenous disadvantage. It was established in 2009-10 and concluded in June 2013. Urbis was commissioned by the Victorian Department of Health to undertake the evaluation of the initiative over the three-year period from 2010-2013. The evaluation focused on four key questions:

  • how effectively the initiative has been implemented in Victoria
  • the extent to which the targets have been achieved
  • whether current projects represent the most appropriate, effective and efficient means for achieving these goals
  • the extent to which a community-driven approach has been adopted and effective in the regional implementation of the initiative.

This report is the final evaluation report for the initiative and provides a summative analysis of the initiative, its effectiveness, appropriateness, impact and outcomes. This report:

  • discusses the Victorian and national approaches to 'closing the gap' in health, providing the policy context and structures supporting the initiative
  • presents findings of the evaluation, under the headings of the five Council of Australian Governments priority areas
  • discusses key achievements, the impact of the initiative on system and structural changes, and lessons learned from the initiative
  • provides a concluding analysis of the contribution made by the initiative to closing the gap, as well as responses to the four key evaluation questions, and recommendations for the future.

Abstract adapted from authors

The Close the Gap Campaign Steering Committee (2014)

Close the gap: progress and priorities report 2014.

Sydney: Australian Human Rights Commission

This report, released annually, presents the Close the Gap Campaign Steering Committee's assessment of the Australian Government's progress towards achieving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health equality under the Closing the gap strategy.

This report is divided into three parts:

  • information and context on the Close the gap initiative (its history, bipartisan and national nature, it's community drive and empowers communities, and holistic)
  • progress of the life expectancy target
  • further actions to be taken by Australian governments.

The 2014 report calls on the Australian Government, in partnership with Indigenous people, to:

  • implement the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health plan 2013-12
  • built partnerships for planning and service delivery
  • continue long-term funding of the Closing the gap initiative and the National partnership agreements.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

URBIS (2014)

Closing the gap in Aboriginal health outcomes initiative: case study report.

Melbourne: Victorian Department of Health

2013

ACT Government (2013)

ACT closing the gap report 2013 : progress outcome for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

Canberra: ACT Government

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australian Institute of Family Studies (2013)

What works to overcome Indigenous disadvantage: key learnings and gaps in the evidence: 2011-12.

Canberra: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

This report summaries the findings of the Closing The Gap Clearinghouse on the research and evaluation evidence collected for overcoming disadvantage for Indigenous Australians. For this report the Clearinghouse focused on three of the seven Council of Australian Governments building blocks for overcoming disadvantage; early childhood, health and safe communities. It includes information on what works, what does not work and gaps in the evidence.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013)

Healthy for life: results for July 2007-June 2011.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report presents data from services receiving Healthy for life (HfL) funding, including the number of clients and health outcomes measured by 10 essential indicators (EIs) covering maternal and child health and chronic disease care:

  • timing of first antenatal visit
  • average birthweight
  • low and high birthweight babies
  • risk factors identified during pregnancy
  • immunisation rates
  • conduct of adult health checks
  • chronic disease management plans, GP management plans and team care arrangements
  • glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) blood tests for clients with type 2 diabetes (whether done in the last 6 months, and the results)
  • blood pressure tests for clients with type 2 diabetes (whether done in the last 6 months, and the results)
  • blood pressure tests for clients with coronary heart disease (whether done in the last 6 months, and the results)

It is the first publicly released report published since data collection and reporting for the Healthy for life program began in 2007. Healthy for life (HfL) program was established with a set of key objectives to improve the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The report provides comparisons over time, making it easy to see how the program has developed and its major achievements.

About 100 health services were funded as part of the program, but not all were required to provide data. Those providing data for the report represent 85% of all services funded in the 2010-11 reporting period. The services are widely distributed in every state and territory, from major cities to very remote areas.

The HfL aligns with the principles and priorities of the National Strategic Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NSF), 2003- 2013 and the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Closing the gap initiative, and is the first Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (OATSIH) funded program with a strong focus on continuous quality improvement (CQI) to collect and report on health outcome data that goes beyond service activity reporting.

Abstract adapted from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013)

Indigenous Early Childhood Development National Partnership Agreement: first annual report on health performance indicators.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report is the first annual performance report for the Indigenous Early Childhood Development National Partnership Agreement (IECD NPA). It provides the latest available information, as well as time trends, on each of the six health-related indicators (of the 10 performance indicators) in the IECD NPA.

The report has chapters on each of the health-related indicators that include detailed data tables and information on methods and data sources:

  • antenatal care
  • teenage rates of sexually transmissible infections
  • low birthweight
  • infant mortality
  • substance use during pregnancy
  • child under five years of age hospitalisation rates by principal diagnosis.

The IECD NPA is a Council of Australian Governments (COAG) agreement established to improve the health and developmental outcomes for Indigenous children across Australia. The IECD NPA is an integral part of COAG's broader agenda to 'close the gap' between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in health, early childhood education and care, education and employment; and it is also closely aligned with other policies such as Investing in the early years - a national early childhood development strategy.

Abstract adapted from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013)

Towards better Indigenous health data.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report describes the first phase of a project undertaken by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) to implement and evaluate the National best practice guidelines for collecting Indigenous status in health data sets across Australia. This project was conducted between July 2011 and December 2012 and helped to:

  • implement the guidelines in selected areas
  • document implementation activities
  • collect baseline information
  • identify barriers to and facilitators for implementation.

The project examined the following health sectors:

  • hospitals
  • drug treatment services
  • mental health services
  • National Diabetes Register
  • cancer registries
  • general practice.

Abstract adapted from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Bailie R, Griffin J, Laycock A, Kelaher M, McNeair T, Percival N, Schierhout G (2013)

Sentinel Sites evaluation: a place-based evaluation of the Indigenous Chronic Disease Package 2010–2012: final report .

Darwin: Menzies School of Health Research

Closing the Gap Clearinghouse (2013)

Closing the Gap Clearinghouse annual report: 2011–12: 2012–13.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Institute of Family Studies

COAG Reform Council (2013)

Education in Australia 2012: five years of performance.

Sydney: COAG Reform Council

COAG Reform Council (2013)

Indigenous reform 2011-12: comparing performance across Australia.

Sydney: COAG Reform Council

This is the fourth report on the National Indigenous Reform Agreement which sets six targets to address Indigenous disadvantage. The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Reform Council reports on progress toward the targets each year.

This document reports on components of all six targets, though reporting for some targets (Closing the life expectancy gap within a generation and Halving the gap for Indigenous people in Year 12 attainment) is only partial. This is because there is no new data for life expectancy, daily smoking, alcohol consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity; and attendance rates for year 1 - 10 are similar to last year.

The report includes sections on the following, as well as recommendations, jurisdictional snapshots for all states and territories and a statistical supplement:

  • Closing the gap in deaths
  • halving the gap in child deaths
  • early childhood education
  • literacy and numeracy
  • year 12 or equivalent attainment
  • employment outcomes
  • improving performance reporting.

Abstract adapted from the COAG Reform Council

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services (2013)

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services six monthly report April 2013 to October 2013.

Canberra: Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services (2013)

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services six monthly report October 2012 to March 2013.

Canberra: Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

Day A, Francisco A, Jones R (2013)

Programs to improve interpersonal safety in Indigenous communities: evidence and issues.

Canberra: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2013)

Closing the gap in the Northern Territory monitoring report: January to June 2012.

Canberra: Australian Government

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2013)

Closing the gap: Prime Minister's report 2013.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs

This is the fifth annual report outlining progress made towards meeting the targets set for Closing the gap in Indigenous disadvantage in the seven key building blocks:

  • early childhood
  • schooling
  • health
  • healthy homes
  • safe communities
  • economic participation
  • governance and leadership.

The report includes new data from the 2011 Census and provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of progress against the targets.

The report highlights 2013 as the year the first target - ensuring all Indigenous four-year olds living in remote communities have access to early childhood education within five years - falls due and claims this target will be met.

The Australian Government's agenda for Closing the gap is driven by the need to:

  • overcome decades of under-investment in services and infrastructure
  • encourage and support personal responsibility for healthy functional families and communities
  • build new understanding and respect between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

The report states that continued and sustained effort is needed to close the gap, but that the expected achievement of the early childhood education target in 2013 will support a commitment to ensuring that benefits flow through to the other Closing the gap targets to further address Indigenous disadvantage.

As with previous reports, it is acknowledged that the approach to Closing the Gap is a partnership with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and communities, the private sector and non-government organisations.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Department of Health and Ageing (2013)

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health plan: companion document on Commonwealth Government strategies and reforms - July 2013.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing

Footprints in Time (2013)

Footprints in Time: the longitudinal study of Indigenous children: report from Wave 4.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs

This report is the fourth in a series of reports produced for each wave of the data collection from a longitudinal study following the development of a group of Indigenous children and examining the factors contributing to their individual and collective outcomes.

Beginning in 2008, the study aims to provide quantitative and qualitative data that can be used to improve the understanding of, and policy response to, the diverse circumstances faced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, their families and communities.

The range of topics covered in this report includes:

  • learning and school
  • nutrition and exercise
  • health conditions
  • emotional development
  • family life
  • culture and community
  • socioeconomic disadvantage and children's outcomes
  • breastfeeding
  • social and emotional wellbeing
  • housing conditions
  • body mass index of children.

Wave 4 features new questions about children's educational and recreational activities and the use of computers and the internet.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Grealy C, Kurti L, URBIS (2013)

Closing the gap in Aboriginal health outcomes initiative: interim evaluation report.

Melbourne: Victorian Department of Health

Holland C (2013)

Shadow report 2013: on Australian governments' progress towards closing the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

Canberra: Close the Gap Campaign Steering Committee

This report presents the Close the Gap Campaign Steering Committee's assessment of the Australian Government's progress towards achieving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health equality under the Closing the gap strategy. The report is divided into two parts:

  • the first assesses progress against the Council of Australian Government's Closing the gap targets and the implementation of the commitments in the Close the gap statement of intent. It considers this assessment in relation to the renewal of the National partnership agreement on closing the gap in Indigenous health outcomes which expires in June 2013
  • the second part of the report examines developments in partnership and planning with a focus on the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health plan due for completion and implementation in mid-2013. It emphasises the need for the plan to be developed in partnership with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and their representative bodies.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Inner North West Melbourne Medicare Local (2013)

Closing the Gap in inner north west Melbourne: a population health needs assessment.

Melbourne: Inner North West Melbourne Medicare Local

Victorian Department of Health (2013)

Closing the Gap – Koolin Balit: Aboriginal health: 2011 update: regional data.

Melbourne: Victorian Department of Health

Young J, Putt J, Dunnett D, Spicer D, Marshall C (2013)

Evaluation of the community engagement police officers trial : final report.

Canberra: Colmar Brunton Attorney-General's Department

2012

Australian Council for Educational Research (2012)

Review of the Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators report for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision.

Canberra: Productivity Commission

Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council (2012)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health performance framework: 2012 report.

Canberra: Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health, Department of Health and Ageing

This is the fourth report under the auspice of the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council to measure progress against the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health performance framework (HPF). The framework has become one of the key means of monitoring progress in Closing the gap between Indigenous and other Australians. It was reviewed and revised in 2011 and now includes 68 key measures (previously 71 measures) under the following tiers:

  • Tier 1-Health status and outcomes: measures the prevalence of health conditions including disease or injury, human function, life expectancy, wellbeing and deaths.
  • Tier 2-Determinants of health: measures of the determinants of health, including socioeconomic status, environmental factors and health behaviours.
  • Tier 3-Health system performance: measures of the health system, including effectiveness, responsiveness, accessibility, continuity, capability and sustainability.

The aim of the report is to promote accountability, inform policy and research, and generate informed debate. The report includes an overview of current national policies and strategies, and data analysis for each of the three tiers.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification in community services data collections: an updated data quality report.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012)

Dental health of Indigenous children in the Northern Territory: progress of the Closing the Gap Child Oral Health program up to December 2011.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report, prepared by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, provides information on the dental health and services available to eligible Indigenous children as part of the Closing the gap child oral health program in the Northern Territory. This report provides detailed information on:

  • dental service delivery for Indigenous children
  • preventive interventions and oral health promotion
  • Indigenous children's oral health problems.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012)

Northern Territory emergency response child health check initiative - follow-up services for oral and ear health: final report 2007-2012.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This report is the final in a series of seven reports on the dental, audiology and ear, nose and throat (ENT) services funded by the Australian Government under the Northern Territory emergency response child health check initiative (NTER CHCI) and the Closing the gap in the Northern Territory national partnership agreement (CtG NT). Although open to all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children under 16 years living in prescribed communities, these programs specifically targeted those who received referrals from their Child health check (CHC).

Based on the data collected, this report provides information on the extent of services provided, and the oral, ear and hearing health of children who received these services. The information in this report relates to dental and audiology services provided from August 2007 to 30 June 2012, and funded ENT consultations provided from August 2007 to December 2010 and ENT surgeries performed from 1 July 2009 to 31 December 2010.

The report was produced jointly by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA) and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW).

Abstract adapted from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Medical Association (2012)

AMA Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health audit report: progress to date and challenges that remain.

Canberra: Australian Medical Association

This report card presents the Australian Medical Association (AMA) Taskforce on Indigenous health's audit of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services. The report card considers the progress that has been made by Australian governments in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, and the challenges that still exist, as measured against the key recommendations the AMA has made in five priority areas over the last 10 years, including:

  • provision of primary health care appropriate to need
  • strong workforce for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health
  • high quality health services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
  • health risk factors and social determinants
  • governance and monitoring.

The report lists the recommendations together with major government measures, programs and initiatives that have been adopted, the challenges that still exist and the work that still needs to be done.

Abstract adapted from AMA

Australian National Audit Office (2012)

Capacity development for Indigenous service delivery.

Canberra: Australian National Audit Office

This report presents the findings of an independent performance audit in the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations and the Department of Health and Ageing. The focus of the audit was the provision of programs and services to remote Indigenous communities. In particular, how these organisations attempt to reduce the risks associated with service delivery by Indigenous organisations who have a significant role in the delivery of these services on behalf of the Australian Government. The key findings included:

  • the influences on service delivery capacity for service providers (in particular remote service providers)
  • risk management for program and service delivery outcomes
  • Australian Government investment to support capacity for Indigenous service delivery.

Recommendations and the responses of the three departments to the report are included.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian National Audit Office (2012)

Indigenous early childhood development. New Directions: mothers and babies services.

Canberra: Australian National Audit Office

The Indigenous early childhood development national partnership (IECD NP) focuses on improving access to, and the use of, maternal and child health services. The New directions: mothers and babies services is a program under this partnership, funded by the Australian Government and administered by the Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA).

Service delivery under the IECD NP includes:

  • antenatal and postnatal care
  • standard information about baby care
  • advice and assistance with breastfeeding, nutrition and parenting
  • monitoring developmental milestones, immunisation and infections
  • health checks and referrals prior to starting school.

This audit report examines how effective DoHA has been in administering the New directions: mother and babies services program.

The audit includes key findings on:

  • program development and planning for effective service delivery
  • program implementation
  • performance monitoring and reporting.

Recommendations and DoHA's response are also presented.

Abstract adapted from Australian National Audit Office summary

Close the Gap Campaign Steering Committee (2012)

Shadow report 2012 : on Australian governments' progress towards closing the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

Melbourne: Oxfam Australia

This report presents the Close the Gap Campaign Steering Committee's assessment of the Australian Government's progress towards achieving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health equality under the Closing the gap strategy. The report is divided into two parts; the first assesses progress against the Council of Australian Government's Closing the gap targets and the implementation of the commitments in the Close the gap statement of intent. The second part of the report describes how the states and territories that are parties to the Close the gap statement of intent are implementing it in their jurisdictions.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Closing the Gap Clearinghouse (2012)

What works to overcome Indigenous disadvantage: key learnings and gaps in the evidence: 2010-11.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

This paper provides the key findings for what works, what does not work, implications for programs and projects and gaps in evidence for the following Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Closing the gap in Indigenous disadvantage building blocks:

  • Early childhood
  • Healthy homes
  • Governance and leadership.

The Closing the Gap Clearinghouse was established by COAG to collect, analyses and synthesis evidence based research on overcoming disadvantage for Indigenous Australians.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

COAG Reform Council (2012)

Indigenous reform 2010-11: comparing performance across Australia.

Sydney: COAG Reform Council

This report presents progress against indicators in the National Indigenous reform agreement. The agreement sets out the policy framework and the six targets for commonwealth, state and territory governments to close the gap in Indigenous disadvantage in health, education and employment.

It is the role of The COAG Reform Council to assess and report on the performance of governments against the targets and performance indicators of the national agreement. This report only considers four targets of the six set out in the national agreement, including:

  • close the life expectancy gap within a generation
  • halve the gap in death rates for Indigenous children under five within a decade
  • halve the gap for Indigenous students in reading, writing and numeracy within a decade
  • halve the gap for Indigenous 20-24 year olds in Year 12 or equivalent attainment rates by 2020.

Recommendations from the Reform Council are included in this report.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services (2012)

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services report number five: October 2011 to March 2012.

Canberra: Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

This is the fifth report delivered in accordance with the Coordinator-General for remote Indigenous services act 2009 relating to the National partnership agreement on remote service delivery, covering the period October 2011 to March 2012. The report focuses on:

  • delivery of the 12 national agreement outputs for remote delivery services
  • progress with accounting for the identified gaps in key services and infrastructure determined from baseline mapping through local implementation plans
  • community indicators which look at the availability of services, investment and outcomes at a community level.

The report concludes with a brief look at key jurisdictional issues for a number of state and territories.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services (2012)

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services six monthly report April 2012 to September 2012.

Canberra: Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

This is the sixth report delivered in accordance with the Coordinator-General for remote Indigenous services act 2009 relating to the National partnership agreement on remote service delivery,  and covers the period April 2012 to September 2012. The report focuses on actions - built around the Closing the gap building blocks - which provide effective and sustainable services, improve governance processes and engagement, enhance accountability, and deliver local implementation plans.

With the objective of sustainable communities for the future, the report provides practical ideas to help with:

  • ensuring the sustainability of investments to deliver on government commitments
  • community involvement in the design of programs
  • ensuring the right services are available in each community
  • further improving the coordination and integration of services
  • promoting local employment
  • addressing longstanding infrastructure deficits and improving coordination
  • developing the capacity of local organisations and individuals to become more actively involved in being part of the solution
  • building the capacity of government staff for community development through the development of practice guidelines
  • getting a better understanding of the local operating context.

Adapted from Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2012)

Closing the gap: Prime Minister's report 2012.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs

This annual report outlines the progress being made towards meeting the targets set for Closing the gap in Indigenous disadvantage in the seven key building blocks:

  • early childhood
  • schooling
  • health
  • healthy homes
  • safe communities
  • economic participation
  • governance and leadership.

The report highlights the significant improvements in the area of child mortality even though the gap still remains large.

The Australian Government's agenda for Closing the gap is driven by the need to:

  • overcome decades of under-investment in services and infrastructure
  • encourage and support personal responsibility for healthy functional families and communities
  • build new understanding and respect between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

The report states that even though improvements have been made, achieving solid results in the areas identified by the building blocks will take ongoing investment and time.

As with previous reports it is acknowledged that a partnership approach with Indigenous individuals and communities, corporate and community sectors is necessary to help 'close the gap'.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Department of Health and Ageing (2012)

Indigenous early childhood development national partnership: 2011/12 annual report: element three.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing

Graffam J, Shinkfield A (2012)

Strategies to enhance employment of Indigenous ex-offenders after release from correctional institutions.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Gray M, Hunter B, Lohoar S (2012)

Increasing Indigenous employment rates.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Grealy C, Kurti L, URBIS (2012)

Closing the gap in Aboriginal health outcomes initiative: evaluation progress report.

Melbourne: Victorian Department of Health

Hughes H, Hughes M (2012)

Indigenous education 2012.

St Leonards, NSW: Centre for Independent Studies

Macklin J (2012)

Continuing our efforts to close the gap: Ministerial statements 2012-13.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs

Minum Barreng Indigenous Eye Health Unit (2012)

2012 annual update on the implementation of The Roadmap to Close the Gap for Vision.

Melbourne: Indigenous Eye Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population Health

Mullan K, Redmond G (2012)

A socio-economic profile of families in the first wave of the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

Australian Economic Review; 45(2): 232-245

New South Wales Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence (2012)

The health of Aboriginal people of NSW: report of the Chief Health Officer 2012.

Sydney: New South Wales Ministry of Health

New South Wales Ministry of Health (2012)

Aboriginal health close the gap report card.

Sydney: New South Wales Ministry of Health

Office of the Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services (2012)

Office of the Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services report: June 2011 to August 2012.

Darwin: Office of the Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services

This is the first of two annual reports that examine the objectives, strategies and funding arrangements of agreements that form the basis of the partnership between the Commonwealth and Northern Territory (NT) governments aimed at closing the gap in living conditions and social outcomes for Aboriginal Territorians.

The geographies assessed in the report include; Territory growth towns, Community living areas, town camps, homelands, communities and outstations.

The report focuses on four major themes arising from the approach taken by governments in relation to Aboriginal people since the NT emergency response (NTER) commenced in 2007 and reflected in the Stronger futures arrangements proposed for the next ten years. These are:

  • transparency and accountability
  • the balance between the crisis and developmental aspects of initiatives under both the NTER and Stronger futures
  • the marginalisation of Aboriginal people in decision making and resource allocation
  • the lack of long-term planning and capacity development within Aboriginal towns, particularly the transfer of service delivery from Aboriginal organisations to the non-Indigenous, non-profit sector.
The report makes twelve recommendations in the following areas:population and mobility; one-stop shop business centres; accountability and transparency; prioritisation of investments; community safety; early childhood; education; youth services review; labour force participation; workforce development (housing); housing; and health (morgues).

Abstract adapted from Office of the Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services report

Ou L, Chen J, Hillman K (2012)

Have the health gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian children changed over time? Results from an Australian national representative longitudinal study.

Maternal and Child Health Journal; 16(4): 814-823

Spurling GKP, Askew DA, Schluter PJ, Simpson F, Hayman NE (2012)

Conventionally accepted risk factors do not explain higher rates of middle ear disease in remote Indigenous children: an ecological study [letter].

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 36(5): 491-492

Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (2012)

2012 Indigenous expenditure report.

Canberra: Productivity Commission

This report is the second in a series that provides estimates of expenditure on services provided to Indigenous Australians by the Australian Government, and state and territory governments, for 2008-09 and 2010-11. The Report provides information on the level and patterns of expenditure, on targeted and mainstream services, across 86 expenditure categories, mapped to the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) National Indigenous Reform Agreement building blocks.

Produced for COAG, it contributes to the information available to policy makers to address the gap between outcomes for Indigenous and other Australians. When combined with other information, the Report gives a better understanding of the adequacy, effectiveness and efficiency of government expenditure on services to Indigenous Australians. It additionally identifies areas where better data or more detailed investigations are required.

The Report includes national level data in the following categories:

  • total direct Indigenous expenditure
  • mainstream and targeted (Indigenous specific) services
  • estimated expenditure per head.

The Report also includes a number of focus areas of expenditure:

  • school education
  • public and community health
  • housing.

Abstract adapted from the Productivity Commission

Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (2012)

Report on government services 2012.

Melbourne: Productivity Commission

Taylor HR, Anjou MD, Boudville AI, McNeil RJ (2012)

The roadmap to close the gap for vision: full report.

Melbourne: Indigenous Eye Health Unit, the University of Melbourne

The Roadmap to close the gap for vision - full report was produced by the Indigenous Eye Health Unit at the University of Melbourne. This detailed report describes the research project Roadmap to close the gap for vision project, with an explanation of the findings and consultation process that led to the recommendations.

The overall aim of this review of health services provisions, was to was to develop a model of eye care for Indigenous Australians for presentation to the Australian Government. Forty-two recommendations across nine domains of activity are presented as a comprehensive package of policy reforms with the goal to 'close the gap for vision'. The nine domains present a broad outline of the recommendations:

  1. primary eye care as part of comprehensive primary health care
  2. Indigenous access to eye health services
  3. coordination
  4. eye health workforce
  5. elimination of trachoma
  6. monitoring and evaluation
  7. governance
  8. health promotion and awareness
  9. health financing.

Abstract adapted from Indigenous Eye Health Unit

Taylor HR, Boudville AI, Anjou MD (2012)

The roadmap to close the gap for vision.

Medical Journal of Australia; 197(11): 613-615

Thompson SC, Woods JA, Katzenellenbogen JM (2012)

The quality of Indigenous identification in administrative health data in Australia: insights from studies using data linkage.

BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making; 12: 133

Retrieved 16 November 2012 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-12-133

Tsey K, McCalman J, Bainbridge R, Brown C (2012)

Improving Indigenous community governance through strengthening Indigenous and government organisational capacity.

Canberra: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

2011

Al-Yaman F, Higgins D (2011)

What works to overcome Indigenous disadvantage: key learnings and gaps in the evidence: 2009-2010.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australian Institute of Family Studies

Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council (2011)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health performance framework: 2010 report.

Canberra: Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health, Department of Health and Ageing

This is the third report developed under the auspice of the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council to measure progress against the National strategic framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health as well as the more recent measures introduced under Closing the gap national partnerships.

The performance framework reports on the three tiers of health:

  • health status and outcomes: this includes measures of prevalence of disease or injury, human function, life expectancy and wellbeing
  • measures of the health determinants: this includes socioeconomic status, environmental factors and health behaviours
  • health system performance: this includes effectiveness, responsiveness, accessibility and sustainability.
Major findings of the report include:
  • a significant decline in Indigenous deaths due to avoidable causes
  • narrowing of the mortality gap
  • reduction in infant mortality
  • chronic diseases are a continuing concern, contributing to two thirds of the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians
  • there were slight reductions in literacy and numeracy gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students
  • risky behaviours, such as smoking and lack of physical activity, were continuing concerns among Indigenous people
  • access to, and utilisation of medical services is less than expected given higher levels of illness
  • access to medical services is more difficult in remote than non-remote areas.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011)

Contribution of chronic disease to the gap in mortality between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011)

Maternity data in Australia: a review of sources and gaps.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011)

Principles on the use of direct age-standardisation in administrative data collections: for measuring the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Close the Gap Campaign Steering Committee for Indigenous Health Equality (2011)

Shadow report on Australian Governments' progress towards closing the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

Canberra: Australian Human Rights Commission

The Close the gap shadow report 2011 is the assessment of the Close the gap campaign of the progress made by the Australian Government towards achieving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health equality. The report is divided into two parts, the first assesses progress against the Council of Australian Government's Closing the gap targets and the implementation of the commitments in the Close the gap statement of intent. The second part of the report describes how the states and territories that are parties to the Close the gap statement of intent are implementing it in their jurisdictions.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Closing the Gap Clearinghouse (2011)

Closing the Gap Clearinghouse: annual report.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australian Institute of Family Studies

COAG Reform Council (2011)

COAG reform agenda: report on progress 2011.

Sydney: COAG Reform Council

This report presents the progress of the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) reform agenda which aims to improve the wellbeing of all Australians including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. It reports on the six institutional features (e.g., fair and sustainable financial arrangements) of the Intergovernmental agreement on federal financial relations (IGA) and if they are being realised in practice, the progress of key reform commitments and finally performance indicators for the goals set for the COAG reform agenda including Closing the gap on Indigenous disadvantage.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

COAG Reform Council (2011)

National Indigenous Reform Agreement: performance report for 2009–10.

Sydney: COAG Reform Council

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services (2011)

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services six monthly report April 2011 - September 2011.

Canberra: Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services (2011)

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services six monthly report September 2010 - March 2011.

Canberra: Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2011)

Closing the gap in the Northern Territory monitoring report : January to June 2011.

Canberra: Australian Government

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2011)

Closing the gap in the Northern Territory monitoring report : July to December 2010.

Canberra: Australian Government

This report provides data and analysis of the Closing the gap in the Northern Territory (previously the Northern Territory emergency response [NTER]) for the period July to December 2010. Part one of the report includes: background information on the NTER and the Closing the gap in the Northern Territory national partnership agreement; an overview of the NTER redesign process; an outline of the evaluation and monitoring of the NTER; an outline of the NTER measures; and key points from the whole of government report.

Part two of the report assesses what achievements and progress have been made towards the targets and milestones set out for the NTER during the time period.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2011)

Closing the gap: Prime Minister's report 2011.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Australia

The third annual report outlines the progress that has been made towards meeting the targets set to close the gap in life expectancy, early childhood, health, education and employment between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The most positive change has been in the area of child mortality where the gap has significantly narrowed in recent years.

The report provides information on the seven key building blocks identified by the Government as addressing specific areas of Indigenous disadvantage, including:

  • early childhood building block
  • schooling building block
  • health building block
  • healthy homes building block
  • safe communities building block
  • economic participation building block
  • governance and leadership building block.

The Government has committed to investing $5.75 billion over three years to make long-term improvements in each of these building block areas. The report acknowledges the interrelated nature of the Closing the gap targets, and outlines how each of the seven key building blocks works individually and together to make progress towards the targets.

The report also acknowledges how progress can only be made through a partnership approach with Indigenous individuals and communities, and the large role that the corporate and community sectors have to play in closing the gap. The National Congress of Australia's First Peoples and constitutional recognition of Indigenous Australian's are cited as key instances of how this partnership approach has been implemented.

The report recognises that previous methods of data collection were inadequate to measure progress made; to improve the evidence base the Government has committed $46.4 million over four years from 2009-10. Finally the report concludes that there is still much work to be done to address Indigenous disadvantage, but hopefully through following the targets set 'closing the gap' will be a realisable achievement within the next generation.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2011)

Indigenous Remote Service Delivery Special Account: 2010 - 2011 report.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2011)

Northern Territory Emergency Response evaluation report 2011.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs

Department of Health and Ageing (2011)

Closing the gap: the Indigenous Chronic Disease Package in 2010-11 annual progress report on the Australian Government's contribution to the National Partnership Agreement on Closing the Gap in Indigenous Health Outcomes.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing

Department of Health and Ageing (2011)

Evaluation of the child health check initiative and the expanding health service delivery initiative: final report.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Australia

This publication reports on the evaluation of the Child Health Check Initiative (CHCI) and the Expanding Health Service Delivery Initiative (EHSDI) commissioned by the Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA). The two initiatives provide different approaches to addressing the health needs of remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory and are both part of the Northern Territory Emergency Response. The findings and recommendations of the independent evaluation are presented in this report.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Francis C, Gear C, Cameron-Smith L, Cleary M, Lee K, Shannon C, Canuto C, Ogwang T, Shannon B, Maher P, Leditschke A, McIntyre B, Treloar E (2011)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health worker project interim report.

Adelaide: Health Workforce Australia

Jordan K (2011)

Work, welfare and CDEP on the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands: first stage assessment.

Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research

Milligan V, Phillips R, Easthope H, Liu E, Memmott P (2011)

Urban social housing for Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders: respecting culture and adapting services.

Melbourne: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute

This publication reports on research undertaken in the area of urban social housing for Indigenous people across Australia. The aim of the research was to recognise how the delivery of social housing services could be enhanced in culturally appropriate ways to meet Indigenous housing needs and to contribute to closing the gap in Indigenous disadvantage. The report includes the key findings from the research and the future direction needed for policy and practice in the social housing service delivery sector for urban Indigenous people.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Queensland Department of Communities (2011)

Annual highlights report for Queensland's discrete Indigenous communities: July 2010 – June 2011: incorporating the quarterly report on key indicators in Queensland's discrete Indigenous communities for April - June 2011.

Brisbane: Queensland Government

RACGP National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (2011)

Identification of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australian general practice: updated September 2011.

Melbourne: Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (2011)

Australian Government expenditure by state and territory, 2010 Indigenous expenditure report supplement.

Canberra: Productivity Commission

This report is a supplement to the first Indigenous expenditure report (http://www.pc.gov.au/ier/publications/ier-2010) which was released in February 2011 and provides information on estimated expenditure for Indigenous specific services and the estimated share of mainstream services of relevance to the Indigenous population. Expenditure is provided for Australian, state and territory governments. The seven Closing the gap building blocks provide the framework for the report. The aim of this report is to contribute to better policy making and improved outcomes for Indigenous Australians. The focus is 'on the ground' services relating to education, justice, health, housing, community services, employment and other vital services.

The initial report was unable to provide Australian Government direct expenditure allocated to individual states and territories which this supplement provides.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (2011)

Overcoming Indigenous disadvantage: key indicators 2011.

Canberra: Productivity Commission, Australia

This report is the fifth in a series of reports on overcoming Indigenous disadvantage as commissioned by the heads of government in 2002. It has been produced in consultation with Indigenous peoples, governments, academics and service providers. The report measures the progress of the six targets set by the Council of Australian Governments Closing the gap strategy, together with other identified significant indicators. The report has three main sections:

  • an overview of the key messages
  • the main report which provides the evidence base for the framework for the report and detailed information on the current outcomes and those interventions and policies that have enhanced those outcomes
  • tables expanding on the data presented in the report.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (2011)

Overcoming Indigenous disadvantage: key indicators 2011 overview.

Canberra: Productivity Commission, Australia

Taylor HR, Boudville A, Anjou M, McNeil R (2011)

The roadmap to close the gap for vision: summary report.

Melbourne: Indigenous Eye Health Unit, the University of Melbourne

This report is the third part in a series produced by the Indigenous Eye Health Unit at the University of Melbourne, following from the National Indigenous eye health survey report and Access to eye health services among Indigenous Australians. The report makes important recommendations for policy change in eye and vision health across all levels of government in Australia. Each policy recommendation is explained, all possible outcomes are explored, and costings presented clearly. There is also a 'recommendation implementation map' with a timeline for actioning of each recommendation.

Importantly, the report dispels some common myths about Indigenous eye and vision health: poor vision and blindness are the third leading cause of the health gap among Indigenous populations (after cardiovascular disease and diabetes) and increase mortality rates 2.6 times, much of it due to increased risk of injury. Indigenous Australian adults have blindness rates six times the rate of the mainstream; and, although 94% of vision loss is preventable and treatable, 35% of all adults have never had an eye exam. This report represents an important contribution to policy debates.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Victorian Department of Health (2011)

Closing the health gap in Victoria: highlights - 2009 to 2011.

Melbourne: Victorian Department of Health

2010

Aboriginal Affairs NSW (2010)

Two ways together report on indicators 2009.

Sydney: Aboriginal Affairs NSW

Altman J (2010)

Income management and the rights of Indigenous Australians to equity.

Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research

Awofeso N, Brooklyn K, Williams NKV (2010)

Closing the 'targets' gaps: review of 2008-2030 national Indigenous health equality targets.

Health Promotion Journal of Australia; 21(1): 75

Close the Gap Steering Committee for Indigenous Health Equality (2010)

Shadow report on the Australian Government's progress towards closing the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

Canberra: Australian Human Rights Commission

Closing The Gap: Tackling Indigenous Chronic Disease (2010)

Indigenous chronic disease package: monitoring and evaluation framework.

Canberra: Australian Department of Health and Ageing

COAG Reform Council (2010)

National Affordable Housing Agreement: baseline performance report for 2008-09.

Sydney: COAG Reform Council

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services (2010)

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services six monthly report December 2009 – August 2010.

Canberra: Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

Council of Australian Governments Reform Council (2010)

National Healthcare Agreement: baseline performance report for 2008-09.

Canberra: Council of Australian Governments

Council of Australian Governments Reform Council (2010)

National Indigenous Reform Agreement: baseline performance report for 2008-09.

Canberra: Council of Australian Governments

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2010)

Closing the gap in the Northern Territory monitoring report January – June 2010.

Canberra: Australian Government

This Closing the gap in the Northern Territory (previously the Northern Territory Emergency Response) monitoring report provides an analysis of data captured between 1 January and 30 June 2010. However, in many instances information is
provided for the entire period 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2010. 

Part one of the report includes:

  • Background information on the Northern Territory Emergency (NTER), national partnership agreement; Closing the gap in the NT.
  • Overview of the redesign process.
  • Outline of the evaluation and monitoring of the NTER.
  • Outline of the NTER measures.

Part two ties together information against each measure, including achievements and progress against each milestone and target. Part two also includes what has not been achieved and 'lessons learned'.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2010)

Closing the gap: Prime Minister's report 2010.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs

The second annual report outlines the work undertaken in 2010 to meet the targets set to 'close the gap' in life expectancy, early childhood, health, education and employment between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

For each of the six targets, this report:

  • outlines the target's commitment and baseline
  • provides current contextual information
  • reports on the progress made against the target.

For each of the seven 'building blocks', this report:

  • outlines the goals of the building block
  • provides information on the key achievements
  • includes a case study of a program or service.

The report provides detailed information on the work undertaken to improve the collection and reporting of relevant information to help track progress. It also outlines government expenditure on relevant programs and services.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2010)

Indigenous economic development strategy draft for consultation.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2010)

Leading practice agreements: maximising outcomes from native title benefits: discussion paper.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Australia

Department of Health and Ageing (2010)

Closing the Gap: the Indigenous chronic disease package in 2009-10: annual progress report on the Australian Government's contribution to the National Partnership Agreement on Closing the Gap in Indigenous health outcomes.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing

Gray D, Wilkes E (2010)

Reducing alcohol and other drug related harm.

Canberra: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

This resource sheet provides an overview of approaches to reducing alcohol and other drug related harm amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Included is information on what is currently known about these approaches and what information needs to be developed in this area. This resource sheet was produced as part of a series by the Closing the gap clearinghouse to disseminate information which could be used to help develop solutions to 'close the gap'.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Higgins DJ (2010)

Community development approaches to safety and wellbeing of Indigenous children.

Canberra: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

This resource sheet provides an overview of community development approaches to safety and wellbeing of Indigenous children. Included is information on what is currently known about these approaces and what information needs to be developed in this area. This resource sheet was produced as part of a series by the Closing the gap clearinghouse to disseminate information which could be used to help develop solutions to 'close the gap'.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Indigenous Expenditure Report Steering Committee (2010)

2010 Indigenous expenditure report.

Canberra: Productivity Commission

This report provides thorough information on expenditure on both Indigenous specific services and the estimated Indigenous share of mainstream services by the Australian, state and territory governments. The report highlights the difficulties in providing this information and sets out ways that this information can be better collected and analysed by jurisdictions.

The report is arranged around the seven Closing the gap building blocks: early childhood; schooling; health; economic participation; healthy homes; safe communities; and governance and leadership. Total Indigenous expenditure in 2008-09 was estimated to be $21.9 billion or 5.3 per cent of total general government expenditure. Estimated expenditure per head of population was $40,228 for Indigenous Australians, compared with $18,351 for non-Indigenous Australians.

Expenditure on services related to Indigenous Australians is thought to be greater than for non-Indigenous Australians because of differences in levels of disadvantage, more intensive use of services by Indigenous Australians, and the greater cost of providing these services (because of factors such as more Indigenous Australians living in remote areas).

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

National Indigenous Health Equality Council (2010)

Child mortality target: analysis and recommendations.

Canberra: National Indigenous Health Equality Council

National Indigenous Health Equality Council (2010)

Health workforce target: analysis and recommendations part 1: Indigenous health workforce.

Canberra: National Indigenous Health Equality Council

Productivity Commission (2010)

Impacts and benefits of COAG reforms: reporting framework.

Melbourne: Productivity Commission

Purdie N, Buckley S (2010)

School attendance and retention of Indigenous Australian students.

Canberra: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

Queensland Government (2010)

Queensland Closing the Gap Report: 2008/09: indicators and initiatives for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

Brisbane: Queensland Government Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships

Rudd K (2010)

Prime Minister ministerial statement: closing the gap: 11 February 2010 [speech].

Retrieved 11 February 2010 from http://pmrudd.archive.dpmc.gov.au/node/6480

This is a transcript of the Prime Minister of Australia's second annual statement to Parliament on the progress of the Government's Closing the gap commitments.

The speech was delivered by the Hon. Kevin Rudd MP on 11 February 2010. It accompanied the release of the Prime Minister's annual 'report card', Closing the gap Prime Minister's report 2010.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Russell L, Wenham S (2010)

Closing the gap on Indigenous disadvantage: progress towards this important goal.

Canberra: Menzies Centre for Health Policy

This report examines whether the Australian government's commitment to 'closing the gap' has made any progress. The report compares time elapsed since the government commitment, with what has actually occurred in relation to:

  • life expectancy;
  • infant mortality;
  • access to early education;
  • literracy and numeracy;
  • year 12 retention rates; and
  • employment.

Regarding the life expectancy gap the authors argue that while the life expectancy gap has decreased from 20 years to 11 years, this does not indicate an actual improvement in the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. The accuracy of the 11 year 'gap' is being questioned due to the methodology used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics of matching death records with a census record, as currently 26% of Indigenous deaths are not matched with a census record.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Russell L (2010)

Commonwealth Indigenous budget bulletin.

Canberra: Macroeconomics

The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2010)

Cultural safety training : identification of cultural safety training needs.

South Melbourne: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2010)

Cultural safety training : identification of cultural safety training needs : matrix for the identification of cultural safety training.

South Melbourne: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

Victorian Aboriginal Economic Development Group (2010)

Moonda Wurrin Gree – pathways to a better economic future [part 1 & 2].

Melbourne: Ministerial Taskforce on Aboriginal Affairs

Western Australian Department of Indigenous Affairs (2010)

Closing the gap in Indigenous life outcomes, Western Australia.

Perth, WA: Department of Indigenous Affairs, Western Australia

2009

Access Economics (2009)

Economic impact of closing the Indigenous gap in remote and very remote Australia.

Alice Springs: Cooperative Research Centre for Remote Economic Participation

Australian Government Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2009)

Closing the gap in the Northern Territory January 2009 to June 2009 whole of government monitoring report. Part one: overview of measures.

Canberra: Australian Government

This Monitoring Report brings together performance information for each measure under the Northern Territory Emergency Response (NTER) for the period 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2009. The Report is comprised of two parts. This first part an overview of the monitoring data, as well as a background on the NTER, and the changes that have occurred since it began and includes all of the main achievements in dot point.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Australian Government Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2009)

Closing the gap in the Northern Territory January 2009 to June 2009 whole of government monitoring report. Part two: progress by measure.

Canberra: Australian Government

This Monitoring Report brings together performance information for each measure under the Northern Territory Emergency Response (NTER) for the period 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2009. The Report is comprised of two parts. This second part provides detailed information and analysis by sub measure. This includes the progress and associated issues in relation to each identified performance indicator, including the necessary caveats.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Bessarab D, Solonec C, Gibbs T, Lehmann D, Wright M (2009)

Not just scholars but leaders: learning circles in Indigenous health research. An indigenous capacity building grant community report.

Perth, WA: Telethon Institute for Child Health Research

Bradshaw PJ, Alfonso HS, Finn J, Owen J, Thompson PL (2009)

Measuring the gap: accuracy of the Western Australian hospital morbidity data in the identification of adult urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 33(3): 276-279

Close the Gap Steering Committee (2009)

Close the Gap Steering Committee submission to National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission.

Canberra: Australian Human Rights Commission

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services (2009)

Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services six monthly report July-November 2009.

Canberra: Office of the Coordinator General for Remote Indigenous Services

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2009)

Closing the gap on Indigenous disadvantage: the challenge for Australia.

Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia

This report outlines the Commonwealth Government's progress in 'Closing the Gap' and addressing Indigenous disadvantage. Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, promised during his apology to Indigenous Australians in 2008, to deliver a report card each year on the Government's efforts to close the gap. In this first year, measurable targets have been stated, efforts have been made to reset relationships with Indigenous people and initiatives to improve service delivery have been suggested. The main components of 'Closing the Gap' policy include the all-of -government approach and a commitment of the broader community and corporate sector.

The evidence gathered shows the extent of some aspects of Indigenous disadvantage in health, education and employment. The report sets out priorities for the future to achieve lasting change and ensure that future generations of Indigenous Australians have all the opportunities enjoyed by other Australians to live full, healthy lives and achieve their potential.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2009)

Indigenous affairs whole-of-government research and evaluation plan - 2008-11.

Retrieved 20 October 2009 from http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/sa/indigenous/pubs/evaluation/Pages/ia_wog_research_eval_2008_11.aspx

National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (2009)

A healthier future for all Australians: final report June 2009.

Canberra: National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission

Northern Territory Department of Chief Minister (2009)

Closing the gap of Indigenous disadvantage: progress report - 2007-08.

Darwin: Northern Territory Government

Rudd K (2009)

Closing the gap report [speech].

Retrieved 26 February 2009 from http://pmrudd.archive.dpmc.gov.au/node/5287.html

This is a transcript of the Prime Minister of Australia's first annual statement to Parliament on the progress of the Government's Closing the gap commitments.

The speech was delivered by the Hon. Kevin Rudd MP on 26 February 2009. It accompanied the release of the Prime Minister's annual 'report card', Closing the gap on Indigenous disadvantage: the challenge for Australia.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Wylie F (2009)

Feature: closing the gap.

Retrieved 8 October 2009 from http://www.lifescientist.com.au/article/321487/feature_closing_gap?fp=4194304&fpid=1

2008

Access Economics (2008)

An overview of the economic impact of Indigenous disadvantage.

Canberra: Reconciliation Australia

Davis S (2008)

Closing the gap - targets for indicator diseases.

Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 15(4): 3-7

Marmot M, Friel S, Bell R, Houweling TAJ, Taylor S (2008)

Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health.

The Lancet; 372(9650): 1661-1669

Vos T, Barker B, Begg S, Stanley L, Lopez AD (2008)

Burden of disease and injury in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples: the Indigenous health gap.

International Journal of Epidemiology; 38(2): 470-477

 
Last updated: 21 November 2014
 
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